My Pet Rock: Andre the Anthracite

(School Edition) Type Of Coal: Anthracite coal

Rock Type and Compostion

Anthracite coal also know as hard coal is the most metamorphosed coal, which basically means its a metamorphic rock. Anthracite is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Carbon makes up 85 to 98 percent of the rock.
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Texture

Anthracite coal has a non foliated texture. Non foliated texture is when metamorphic rocks are formed around igneous intrusions where the temperatures are high but the pressures are relatively low and equal in all directions (confining pressure).

Origin

Where? Anthracite coal is formed in "geologically deformed areas, such as in the intensely folded sedimentary rocks of the anthracite region, their origin is due to higher than normal heating caused by the presence of nearby igneous intrusions or high geothermal gradients." (Kopp)




How? Anthracite coal is formed through many steps. First it starts with how coal was formed. So coal is formed by peat, a moist soil substance made also of partially decayed plant matter. When the peat is subjected to intensifying heat and pressure it becomes lignite, then when adding more heat and pressure it forms into bituminous coal and from there with more heat and pressure it forms anthracite. the formation of anthracite need temperatures of anywhere form 170 to 250 degrees Celsius (340 to 480 degrees Fahrenheit)

Place in Rock Cycle

Since anthracite coal is a metamorphic rock it is placed deep under the earth by where the magma is.

Practical Uses

Anthracite coal is rarely used nowadays because of the limited quantity as well as the high cost, however anthracite was used for heating purposes, like heating homes back then, the reason why it was used was because it didn't create any emission as well as residual creosote which was a potential fire hazard.

Sources

Anthracite [Photograph]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/science/anthracite

Composition of coal. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://f03.classes.colgate.edu/fsem037-coal/Coal/Default/composition_of_coal.htm

[The following diagram summarizes the rock cycle.]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.siyavula.com/gr7-9-websites/natural-sciences/gr9/gr9-eb-02.html

Fossil fuels and the carbon cycle. (n.d.). Retrieved from BioEd Online website: http://www.bioedonline.org/lessons-and-more/lessons-by-topic/ecology/global-atmospheric-change/fossil-fuels-and-the-carbon-cycle/

Kopp, O. C. (n.d.). Anthracite. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Britannica website: http://www.britannica.com/science/anthracite

Types and composition of coal. (n.d.). Retrieved from ground truth Trekking website: http://www.groundtruthtrekking.org/Issues/AlaskaCoal/TypesOfCoal.html