Human Body System

including Digestive,Excretory,Circulatory,Respiratory,ECT.

State the function of the digestive system ….?

is digestion and absorption . digestive is the breakdown of food into small molecules . Which are then absorbed into the body . The digestive tract ( alimentary canal) is a continuous tube with two openings : the mouth and the anus .

Functions of the organs inside :

MOUTH- The beginning of the digestive track starts when you take a bite of drink of something . Chewing breaks the food into tiny pieces that make it more easily digested while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use use .

Esophagus - located near your Trachea ( windpipe) the esophagus receives food. By means of senses of muscular contractions called peristalsis the esophagus delivers food to your stomach

Stomach - Hollen organ or “ container” that holds food while being mixed with enzymes that continue the process of breaking down foods into a usable form . Cells create an inning of acid in the stomach that are responsible for the breakdown process when the continents in the stomach are fully processed then it moves on to the small intestine .

Small Intestine- Made up of 3 segments - the duodenum , dejunum, and the ileum- the small intestines is a twenty -two foot long muscular tube that breaks down food using enzymes released by the pancreas and bit from the liver . Contents start off semi solid - then at the end turn liquid after passing through the organ . Once the nutrients have been absorbed and the leftover food residue liquid has passed through the small intestine or colon .

Pancreas - It secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum , the first segment of the small intestine enzymes break down protein fats and

carbohydrates the pancreas also makes insulin is the chief hormone for metabolizing sugar .

Liver - Livers main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat the liver is bodies chemical “ factory “ It takes raw materials absorbed by the intestine and makes all various chemicals the body needs to function the liver also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals . It breaks down and secrets many drugs .

Colon(large intestine)- Moves material that has not been digested along , Absorbs water , and produces fices

Anus- A place where fices are held until the fices is needed out

Gallbladder - stores and concentrates bile , and then releases into the duodenum to help absorb and digests fats

There are 2 reasons why :

1 the food he eats is made up of many compounds made by other organisms which are not all suitable for human tissues and therefore these have bodies can use them . 2) The food molecules have to be small enough to be absorbed by the villi in the intestine through diffusion facilitated diffusion active transport and so large food molecules need to be broken down into smaller ones for absorption to occur. ( food needs to be broken down and reassembled , and large food molecules need to be broken down into smaller ones.)

4) Enzymes break down large food molecules into smaller ones , speeds up the process of digestion by cloning the activation energy for the reaction , works at body temperature

Irritable bowel syndrome( I B S)& Lactose Intolerance

Irritable bowel syndrome( I B S) - a disorder that leads to abnormal pain and bowel changes

  • signs and symptoms are:

  • Abdominal pain

  • gas

  • fullness

  • bloating

-Happens for at least 3 days a month for 3 months

- exercise and improved sleep habits may reduce anxiety and help relieve that ,also a diet change .

Lactose Intolerance- develops when the small intestine does not make enough of this enzymes .

  • signs and symptoms are:

  • Abdominal bloating

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Diarrhea

  • gas

  • Nausea

-Occurs 30 min to 2 hours after having milk products . - cut down your intake of milk products that contain lactose from your diet most often eases symptoms .

The function of the Excretory system

is responsible for the elimination of wastes produced by homeostasis . There are several parts of the body that are involved in this process such as sweat glands , the liver , the lungs and the kidney system .


kidney malfunction or genetic problems , high cholesterol.


  • swelling in the face , abdomen , arm and legs .

  • foamy urine

  • slight weight gain due to retamed fluids

  • loss of appetite

  • occurs

-treatment removing the disorders that are causing it. It is also necessary to change the diet of the patient so the high cholesterol levels are controlled

kidney stones

: smaller sized deposits of calcium and can be seen in nephrons

  • signs and symptoms

  • vomiting /nausea

  • painful urination

  • frequent urination

  • fever or chills

  • bloody or smelly urine

  • sharp pain of the back or side .

  • lasts for months and happens everyday till treatment .

  • treatment : drink lots of fluids , pain killers

The circulatory systems function

  1. is responsible for transporting materials through the entire body. it transports nutrients , water,and oxygen to your billions of body cells and carries away wastes such as carbon dioxide that body cells produce .

the relationships between the structure and function of arteries, capillaries ,and veins

  1. Arties: Thick outer layer of longitudinal collagen and elastic fibers prevents leaks and bulges . Thick wall withstands high pressure , thick layers of circular elastic fibers and muscular , fibers to pump blood , lastly Narrow lumen to maintain high pressure .

  2. Veins : Thin layer with few circular elastic fibers and muscle fibers as blood does not flow in pulses thin walls so that nearby muscles can help push blood towards the heart thin outer layer of longitudinal collagen and elastic fibers as pressure is low wide lumen to accommodate the slow flowing blood

  3. Capillaries: walls is one cell layer thick so distance for diffusion is small pores allow plasma to leak out and form tissue fluid . Phagocytes can also pass through pores very narrow lumen so that many can fit in a small space.

The route of blood through the heart :

1. Blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae,

and the coronary sinus.

2. From right atrium, it goes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle.

3. From the right ventricle, it goes through the pulmonary semilunar valves to

the pulmonary trunk

4. From the pulmonary trunk it moves into the right and left pulmonary

arteries to the lungs.

5. From the lungs, oxygenated blood is returned to the heart through the

pulmonary veins.

6. From the pulmonary veins, blood flows into the left atrium.

7. From the left atrium, blood flows through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into

the left ventricle.8. From the left ventricle, it goes through the aortic semilunar valves into the

ascending aorta.

9. Blood is distributed to the rest of the body (systemic circulation) from the


Describe the composition of blood in the ...


The liquid component of blood is called plasma, a mixture of water, sugar, fat, protein, and salts. The main job of the plasma is to transport blood cells throughout your body along with nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins, chemical messengers such as hormones, and proteins that help maintain the body's fluid balance.

Red Blood Cells (also called erythrocytes or RBCs)

Red cells contain a special protein called hemoglobin, which helps carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then returns carbon dioxide from the body to the lungs so it can be exhaled. Blood appears red because of the large number of red blood cells, which get their color from the hemoglobin. The percentage of whole blood volume that is made up of red blood cells is called the hematocrit and is a common measure of red blood cell levels.

White Blood Cells (also called leukocytes)

White blood cells protect the body from infection. They are much fewer in number than red blood cells, accounting for about 1 percent of your blood.

Platelets (also called thrombocytes)

Unlike red and white blood cells, platelets are not actually cells but rather small fragments of cells. Platelets help the blood clotting process (or coagulation) by gathering at the site of an injury, sticking to the lining of the injured blood vessel, and forming a platform on which blood coagulation can occur. This results in the formation of a fibrin clot, which covers the wound and prevents blood from leaking out. Fibrin also forms the initial scaffolding upon which new tissue forms, thus promoting healing.

Aortic Aneurysm & Atherosclerosis

Aortic Aneurysm

1) An outpouching (a local widening) of the largest artery in the body, the aorta, involving that vessel in its course above the diaphragm (thoracic aortic aneurysm) or, more commonly, below the diaphragm .

  • b. A throbbing feeling in the abdomen

  • Deep pain in your back or the side of your abdomen

  • Steady, gnawing pain in your abdomen that lasts for hours or days

c) The force of blood pumping can split the layers of

the artery wall, allowing blood to leak in between

them. This process is called a dissection.

The aneurysm can burst completely, causing

bleeding inside the body. This is called a rupture.

Dissections and ruptures are the cause of most

deaths from aortic aneurysms.

d. You may need to take medicine to treat high cholesterol and high blood pressure. These measures have not been proved to slow aneurysm growth, but they can improve your life in other ways. These measures reduce your risk of dying from heart attack and stroke.


  1. a. a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls.

  • chest pain (angina)

  • pain in the leg, arm, and anywhere else that an artery is blocked.

  • shortness of breath.

  • fatigue.

  • confusion (if the blockage affects circulation to the brain)

  • muscle weakness in the legs from lack of circulation.

    • Avoid cigarette smoking. ...

    • Maintain a healthy weight. ...

    • Eat a healthy diet that is rich in vegetables and fruits. ...

    • Exercise regularly.

    • Control high blood pressure.

    d. Follow a Healthy Diet

    Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes

    Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

    Be Physically Active

    Maintain a Healthy Weight

The primary function of the respiratory system

is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.


alveoli are so small there are huge numbers of them which results in a large surface area for gas exchange. Also the wall of the alveoli is made up of a single layer of thin cells and so are the capillaries, this creates a short diffusion distance for the gases. Therefore this allows rapid gas exchange. The alveoli are covered by a dense network of blood capillaries which have a low oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations. This allows oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out of the blood. Finally, there are cells in the alveolar walls which secrete a fluid that keeps the inner surface of the alveoli moist, allowing gases to dissolve. This fluid also contains a natural detergent that prevents the sides of the alveoli from sticking together.

Oxygen enters the blood from the lungs and carbon dioxide is expelled out of the blood into the lungs. The blood serves to transport both gases. Oxygen is carried to the cells. Carbon dioxide is carried away from the cells.

235 million people worldwide were affected by asthma, and approximately 250,000 people die per year from the disease. Low and middle income countries make up more than 80% of the mortality.

Short-acting bronchodilator inhalers are often referred to as rescue inhalers and are used to quickly relieve the cough, wheeze, chest tightness, and shortness of breath caused by asthma.

a respiratory condition marked by spasms in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing. It usually results from an allergic reaction or other forms of hypersensitivity.

  • Coughing, especially at night

  • Wheezing

  • Shortness of breath

  • Chest tightness, pain, or pressure

The immune system is a system

  1. of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue.

Pathogen-a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.

Active Immunity -the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to

the presence of an antigen.

Passive Immunity -the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.

Antigen- a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.

Antibody-a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances

that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.


Antibiotics work by interrupting metabolic pathways in prokaryotic cells. Some bacteria prevent the proper formation of a cell wall, and others prevent bacteria from completing cell division.

Viruses can not be killed by antibiotics because viruses lack metabolic pathways. Viruses can reproduce without having their own metabolic pathways by infecting eukaryotic organisms and hijacking their metabolic pathways, which are not affected by antibiotics.

a disease in which there is a severe loss of the body's cellular immunity, greatly lowering the resistance to infection and malignancy.

  • Cough and shortness of breath.

  • Seizures and lack of coordination.

  • Difficult or painful swallowing.

  • Mental symptoms such as confusion and forgetfulness.

  • Severe and persistent diarrhea.

  • Fever.

  • Vision loss.

  • Nausea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting.

is estimated that there are 33.3 million people worldwide infected with HIV.

  • "The Cocktail"

  • Antiretrovirals (ARVs)

  • Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART or ART)

The endocrine system is made up of

glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body's growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function.

Homeostasis - the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes. For an organism to function normally and effectively, it is necessary that the biochemical processes of its tissues operate smoothly and conjointly in a stable setting. The endocrine system provides an essential mechanism called homeostasis that integrates body activities and at the same time ensures that the composition of the body fluids bathing the constituent cells remains constant.


The control of blood sugar (glucose) by insulin is another good example of a negative feedback mechanism. When blood sugar rises, receptors in the body sense a change . In turn, the control center (pancreas) secretes insulin into the blood effectively lowering blood sugar levels. Once blood sugar levels reach homeostasis, the pancreas stops releasing insulin.

Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.

  • Increased thirst

  • Frequent urination

    • Bedwetting in children who previously didn't wet the bed during the night

    • Extreme hunger

    • Unintended weight loss

    • Irritability and other mood changes

    • Fatigue and weakness

    • Blurred vision

    • In females, a vaginal yeast infection

    in 2012, 29.1 million Americans, or 9.3% of the population, had diabetes.

    • Food

    • Exercise

    • Stress

    • Emotions and general health

    Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel.

    • Increased thirst

    • Increased hunger (especially after eating)

    • Dry mouth

    • Frequent urination

      • Unexplained weight loss (even though you are eating and feel hungry)

      • Fatigue (weak, tired feeling)

      • Blurred vision

      • Headaches

      • Loss of consciousness (rare)

      Diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes in the United States. Total:29.1 million people or 9.3% of the population have diabetes. Undiagnosed:8.1 million people (27.8% of people with diabetes are undiagnosed).

      is caused by a failure of the body to make or properly use its own insulin, a hormone needed for blood sugar control, there are many treatment plans for type 2 diabetes without insulin replacement.

The skeletal system performs

vital functions — support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation — that enable us to move through our daily lives


Bones: Provide a hard framework for stability and acts as levers (3rd class) to facilitate movement

Ligaments: Holds bones together

Muscles: Provide the force required for movement by moving one bone (point of insertion) in relation to another (point of origin)

Tendons: Connect muscles to bones

Nerves: Motor neurons provides the stimulus for muscle movement and co-ordinates sets of antagonistic muscles

Explain at least 2 major disorders that occur within this system, include:

a. Bone cancer can be primary bone cancer or secondary bone cancer. Primary bone cancer started in the bone; the cancer initially formed in the cells of the bone, while secondary cancer started elsewhere in the body and spread to the bone.

  • b. Bone pain.

  • Swelling and tenderness near the affected area.

  • Broken bone.

  • Fatigue.

  • Unintended weight loss.

c. The number of new cases of bone and joint cancer was 0.9 per 100,000 men and women per year based on 2007-2011 cases.

  • d. Surgery is the usual treatment for bone cancer. ...

  • Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. ...

  • Radiation therapy, also called radiotherapy, involves the use of high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells.

a malignant progressive disease

  1. in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes. These suppress the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia and other symptoms.

  • Fever or chills

  • Persistent fatigue, weakness

  • Frequent or severe infections

  • Losing weight without trying

  • Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen

  • Easy bleeding or bruising

  • Recurrent nosebleeds

  • Tiny red spots in your skin (petechiae)

  • Excessive sweating, especially at night

  • Bone pain or tenderness

  • An estimated combined total of 156,420 people in the US are expected to be diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma or myeloma in 2014.

  • New cases of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma are expected to account for 9.4 percent of the estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed in the US in 2014.

Maintenance therapy

Induction therapy

Muscular System

  1. 1. The main function of the muscular system is movement. Muscles are the only tissue in the body that has the ability to contract and therefore move the other parts of the body. Related to the function of movement is the muscular system's second function: the maintenance of posture and body position.

5. Musculoskeletal :

  1. a. relating to or denoting the musculature and skeleton together.

  • b. Localized or widespread pain that can worsen with movement.

  • Aching or stiffness of the entire body.

  • The feeling that your muscles have been pulled or overworked.

  • Fatigue.

  • Sleep disturbances.

  • Twitching muscles.

  • The sensation of "burning" in your muscles.

c. Musculoskeletal diseases affect more than one out of every two persons in the United States age 18 and over, and nearly three out of four age 65 and over. Trauma, back pain, and arthritis are the three most common musculoskeletal conditions reported, and for which health care visits to physicians’ offices, emergency departments, and hospitals occur each year.

  • d. Physical or occupational therapy.

  • Using a splint to immobilize the affected joint and allow healing.

  • Using heat or cold.

  • Reducing workload and increasing rest.

  • Reducing stress through relaxation and biofeedback techniques.

  • Acupuncture or acupressure.

Reproductive system

Reproductive System

  1. 1. The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions: To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex.

  2. Spermatogenesis is the process of making sperm cells, or developing immature germ cells known as spermatogonia into mature sperm cells called spermatozoa. A sperm cell is the male reproductive cell that fertilizes the female egg in sexual reproduction. A male’s ability to reproduce depends on a high quality and quantity of sperm; therefore, spermatogenesis occurs continually from the time of puberty until death. The stages included in this process are spermatocytogenesis, spermatidogenesis, and spermiogenesis.

3. is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). It is the female form of gametogenesis; the male equivalent is spermatogenesis. It involves the development of the various stages of the immature ovum. During oogenesis, the cytoplasm is unevenly divided during each meiotic division. This results in one egg and three polar bodies. Here is why: Egg cells must contain enough supplies to synthesize all the products needed by the developing embryo until the embryo

implants into the uterine wall. Implantation does not occur until 7-10 days after fertilization. Thus, the unequal division of the cytoplasm ensures the egg has enough supplies for this time period.,

a. Yeast infection

A fungal infection typically on the skin or mucous membranes caused by candida

  • b. Itching in the vaginal area and around the vulva (the opening of the vagina)

  • Burning in the vaginal area

  • Swelling of the vulva

  • White/gray vaginal discharge that may be thick (sometimes described as looking like cottage cheese)

  • Burning during urination

  • Pain with sexual intercourse

  • d. Short-course vaginal therapy. A one-time application or one-to-three-day regimen of an antifungal cream, ointment, tablet or suppository effectively clears a yeast infection in most cases. ...

  • Single-dose oral medication.

Alzheimer's disease & Stroke

Alzheimer's disease

  1. a. progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or old age, due to generalized degeneration of the brain. It is the most common cause of premature senility.

  • b. Depression

  • Anxiety

  • Social withdrawal

  • Mood swings

  • Distrust in others

  • Irritability and aggressiveness

  • Changes in sleeping habits

  • Wandering

  • Loss of inhibitions

  • Delusions, such as believing something has been stolen

c. An estimated 5.2 million Americans have Alzheimer's disease in 2014,

  • d. Cholinesterase inhibitors (Aricept, Exelon, Razadyne). ...

  • Aricept is the only treatment approved by the FDA for all stages of Alzheimer's disease: mild, moderate, and severe. ...

  • Namenda. ...

  • Namzaric.


Muscular: overactive reflexes, paralysis of one side of the body, difficulty walking, stiff muscles, problems with coordination, or paralysis with weak muscles

Visual: sudden visual loss, double vision, temporary loss of vision in one eye, or blurred vision

Sensory: numbness, pins and needles, or reduced sensation of touch

Speech: speech loss, difficulty speaking, or slurred speech

Limbs: weakness or numbness

Facial: muscle weakness or numbness

Whole body: lightheadedness, vertigo, balance disorder, or fatigue

The only FDA approved treatment for ischemic strokes is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, also known as IV rtPA, given through an IV in the arm). tPA works by dissolving the clot and improving blood flow to the part of the brain being deprived of blood flow.

Sarah Byler

March 19