Chemistry Of Life
- Water is polar. Polar is when a molecule has a positive side and a negative side.
- Water has cohesion and adhesion. Cohesion is attraction between the a water and a water molecule. Adhesion is the attraction between a water molecules and a different molecule.
- Water is H2O. Or has 2 Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom.
- it has surface tension making it easy for bugs to run across.
- Also it has hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding is when two polar molecules are attracted to each other.
- Water has a pH level of 7.
- Macromolecules of large molecules.
- Macromolecules are made of carbon.
- Macromolecules are organic.
- There are four types of macromolecules.
- Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
- Carbohydrates are compounds made of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen.
- Carbohydrates are the key source of energy for the body.
- There are four types of carbohydrates.
- Monosaccharides which is one sugar such as glucose or fructose.
- Disaccharides which are two sugars such as sucrose or lactose.
- Oligosaccharides which are chains of single sugars linked together usually 2-9 such as fructo-oligosaccharides.
- Polysaccharides which are long chains of single sugars linked together 200-2500 such as starch or glycogen.
- Proteins are made of animo acids.
- The shape of the protein tells the function of the protein.
- The protein in hair and nails of humans is keratin.
- Proteins can also defend human bodies against viruses such as interferon.
- Emzymes are proteins the speed up chemical reactions.
- Lipids are fatty acids that stores energy.
- Lipids can also insulate and protect human bodies.
- There are 3 types of lipids which are saturated fats, unsaturated fats and trans fat.
- Saturated fats are fats that can't have double bonds.
- Unsaturated fats are fats with one or more double bond.
- Trans fat is a unsaturated fat with added hydrogen bonds.
- Nucleic Acids are polymer made of nucleotides.
- Monomer are the building blocks of of nucleic acids.
- There are 3 types of nucleic acids DNA, RNA and ATP.
- DNA is deoxyribo nucleic acid that holds heredity traits.
- RNA is ribon nucleic acid that tranSfers DNA.
- ATP is adenosine Triphosphate that stores energy.
- Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions which makes enzymes catalysts such as amylase.
- Substrate are substances that enzymes act on such as starch.
- Enzymes lower the activation energy when the enzymes act on substrates.
- Enzymes form pockets that substrates fit into which is called the active sites.
- After an enzyme and a substrate react with each other they make a product such as glucose.