Chemistry Of Life

Kashyia Henry

Waters Characteristics

  • Water is polar. Polar is when a molecule has a positive side and a negative side.
  • Water has cohesion and adhesion. Cohesion is attraction between the a water and a water molecule. Adhesion is the attraction between a water molecules and a different molecule.
  • Water is H2O. Or has 2 Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom.
  • it has surface tension making it easy for bugs to run across.
  • Also it has hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding is when two polar molecules are attracted to each other.
  • Water has a pH level of 7.


  • Macromolecules of large molecules.
  • Macromolecules are made of carbon.
  • Macromolecules are organic.
  • There are four types of macromolecules.
  • Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.


  • Carbohydrates are compounds made of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Carbohydrates are the key source of energy for the body.
  • There are four types of carbohydrates.
  • Monosaccharides which is one sugar such as glucose or fructose.
  • Disaccharides which are two sugars such as sucrose or lactose.
  • Oligosaccharides which are chains of single sugars linked together usually 2-9 such as fructo-oligosaccharides.
  • Polysaccharides which are long chains of single sugars linked together 200-2500 such as starch or glycogen.


  • Proteins are made of animo acids.
  • The shape of the protein tells the function of the protein.
  • The protein in hair and nails of humans is keratin.
  • Proteins can also defend human bodies against viruses such as interferon.
  • Emzymes are proteins the speed up chemical reactions.


  • Lipids are fatty acids that stores energy.
  • Lipids can also insulate and protect human bodies.
  • There are 3 types of lipids which are saturated fats, unsaturated fats and trans fat.
  • Saturated fats are fats that can't have double bonds.
  • Unsaturated fats are fats with one or more double bond.
  • Trans fat is a unsaturated fat with added hydrogen bonds.

Nucleic Acids

  • Nucleic Acids are polymer made of nucleotides.
  • Monomer are the building blocks of of nucleic acids.
  • There are 3 types of nucleic acids DNA, RNA and ATP.
  • DNA is deoxyribo nucleic acid that holds heredity traits.
  • RNA is ribon nucleic acid that tranSfers DNA.
  • ATP is adenosine Triphosphate that stores energy.


  • Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions which makes enzymes catalysts such as amylase.
  • Substrate are substances that enzymes act on such as starch.
  • Enzymes lower the activation energy when the enzymes act on substrates.
  • Enzymes form pockets that substrates fit into which is called the active sites.
  • After an enzyme and a substrate react with each other they make a product such as glucose.