Brain damage

The effects on behavior

by Brandy Whisman

What is brain damage?

Brain damage is a condition which causes deterioration in the brain cells. Brain injuries can be mild to severe. Mild brain injuries are usually considered a concussion and have a brief change in the mental state. Severe brain injuries involve and extended unconsciousness and memory loss (CDC, 2016).

Area of the brain that was damaged

The part of the brain which was damaged is the prefrontal cortex. There are long-term consequences for adults who suffered a prefrontal cortex prior to 16 months of age (Anderson, Bechara, Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1999).
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How the brain was damaged

There are many causes of brain injuries as shown below. The prefrontal cortex becomes damaged when there is a strong blow or jolt to the head which disrupts normal function (CDC, 2016). In this case, the patient was accidentally ran over by a car at 13 months of age.
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Functions controlled by that part of the brain

The portions of the brain controlled by the prefrontal cortex are emotions, motor skills, cognitive skills, and behaviors (Breedlove & Watson, 2013). Having a brain injury impairs all of these areas because the executive function is no longer functioning correctly. A normal executive function allows for developing plans and organizing them through higher processing systems in the brain. Having a severe brain injury causes backtracking, confusion, and not being able to complete simple tasks (Breedlove & Watson, 2013).

Behavioral Changes after the brain was damaged.

There were no significant changes at first, after the accident due to the child's age. It appeared that the child fully recovered. However, around the age of four behavioral problems started being noticed such as the child did not respond to punishments, became disruptive and by the age of 12 he was admitted to several treatment facilities. He failed to comply with rules, was involved in loud confrontations, and rules were consistently disobeyed. As the child came into early adulthood, he became involved in risky sexual behaviors, risky financial behaviors, and very confrontational along with physical to those around him. There were no expressions of guilt, remorse, or responsibility for behaviors. (Anderson, Bechara, Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1999).

Available treatments

There are several available treatments available which include:

  • SPECT which allows for a deep look inside the brain to observe areas that work well, areas that work to hard, and areas that do not work hard enough.
  • QEEG which measures electrical activity
  • Supplements
  • Medications
  • Nutritional Services
  • Coaching
  • Psychotherapy such as individual, family, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and EMDR
  • TMS - which is transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • BHRT which is bio-identical hormone replacement therapy
  • Integrative Medicines such as nutritional supplements, looking at underlying infections, correcting hormones, fixing metabolism, improving lifestyle, improving diets, and detecting toxins

(AmenClinics, 2016).

Questions

Which test or treatment will you start with first?


Will he improve from the testing or treatments?


What chance does he have to recover to have full function?

How Does the Brain Work? - Human Cognition | PSYCHOLOGY & BRAIN SCIENCE VIDEO

References

AmenClinics. (2016). Treatments. Retrieved fromhttp://www.amenclinics.com/treatments/


Anderson, S.W., Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A.R. (1999). Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nature neuroscience, 2(11), 1032-1037. Retrieved from https://docs.google.com/viewerng/viewer?url=ftxt.eurekamag.com/010/010804831.pdf


Breedlove, S. M., & Watson, N. V. (2013). Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical Neuroscience, (7th ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.


CDC. (2016, Jan. 22). Injury Prevention & Control: Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/get_the_facts.html