Water in the World

Chloe Yates 7GPa

Information about the Canberra Region

Canberra’s location is 35.3075˚S 149.1244˚E. It is in the Southern Hemisphere. The altitude is 550m to 700m above sea level. Some of the big cities near Canberra are Sydney and Melbourne. Sydney to Canberra is a distance of 287.1km northwest. Melbourne to Canberra is a distance of 663.3km southwest.

A.C.T Water Catchment

ACT water starts at the Snowy Mountains then travels down to Tantangara Transfer after that it flow up pass the Angle Crossing Pumping Station then up to the Stromlo Water Treatment Plant and Cotter and Murrumbidgee Pumping Station then to the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. The ACT also stores water in dams which start at Cotter River then flow to Corin Dam, Bendora Dam and then Cotter Dam then it goes though the Cotter and Murrumbidgee Pumping Station and the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Center.

Water Scarcity in the Middle East

“Water scarcity is either the lack of enough water (quantity) or lack of access to safe water (quality)”

If they have already built 1000 wells, why are they still running out of water?

The main river that flows through Iraq begins its journey in Turkey and as it flows through Turkey and Syria it is dammed and diverted to other areas within these countries before finally making its way to Iraq. The quality of the water that reaches Iraq is poor due to the build up of silt.

The underground water tables are going down and in some places by a metre a year, which is causing a decrease in the amount of water available to the region. Climate change, population growth, poor irrigation methods, droughts and poor farming practices wasting huge amounts of water are also impacting on the availability of water. Nearly 80% of the water is used for the production of food. They don’t use modern technology so a lot of water is wasted. Also some Middle Eastern Countries like United Arab Emirates (UAE) use more water per person than anywhere else in the world.

How many people are impacted by water scarcity in the region?

About 400 million people live in this region. If they go short on water they are in trouble. The population is growing so more demand is being placed on agriculture and the production of food, which is causing more pressure on the supply of water. The only two countries that have their own water are Turkey and Iran. All the other countries rely on river water that flows into their territory from another country or on ground water.

The MIDDLE EAST is made up of the following countries:

  • Bahrain
  • Iraq
  • Iran
  • Israel
  • Jordan
  • Kuwait
  • Lebanon
  • Oman
  • Palestine
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Syria
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Yemen

Are they putting in place any water management strategies (dams)?

Countries in the Middle East have put in dams along the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers to get water. The Rivers start up in Turkey then flow down to Syria then Iraq. Turkey and Syria can easily stop as much water flowing down to Iraq as they want. These countries have also put in wells, which further decreases the amount of water available.


Picture: Darbanikhan Dam

Can they collaborate?

Turkey can easily not let as much water down to the other countries. Syria and Iraq can be angry because there people are not getting very much water so it is hard to get food and to clean. They would lose money if they send food to different places. If all of the countries only take out as much as they need and their fair share they will all be able to collaborate and be able to save water for when they really need it.

To successfully collaborate the Governments in all the countries involved will need to put together policies and strategies that they all agree on.

What would happen if the water ran out?

If the water ran out the countries will fight over the water and take more than they need. If people don’t have access to clean water they will get very sick and unhealthy and possibly die. Water is also needed to grow food to eat.

Humans need water to survive. In general people need 1000 cubic metres of water annually.

Might the lack of water in the region lead to conflict?

The lack of water in the region will and has contributed to conflicts. The Countries in the Middle East have to share their water resources as most of their water comes from outside their borders. As the water in the Middle East becomes scarcer there will be more conflicts with the shared water supplies. The Governments in these countries need to collaborate and manage their shared water supplies.

Water is essential to Life ..........

Bibliography:

Websites:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Middle_East_countries_by_population

http://www.internetworldstats.com/list1.htm#ME

http://www.iraq-businessnews.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Darbandikhan-Darbandixan-Derbendixan-hydroelectric-dam-N-of-Sulaimaniya-KRG-3.gif

http://kanat.jsc.vsc.edu/student/conant/content.htm

http://thewaterproject.org/water_scarcity

http://www.mapsofworld.com/australia/australia-map.gif

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/02/140221-tigris-river-dam-hasankeyf-turkey-iraq-water/

http://mygeologypage.ucdavis.edu/cowen/~gel115/115CHXXMideastwater.html

https://www.pik-potsdam.de/news/press-releases/climate-change-puts-forty-percent-more-people-at-risk-of-absolute-water-scarcity-study

http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/meriv.htm

Images:

http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/OFORIAA/IMAGES/Iraq%20water.jpg

http://www.actew.com.au/~/media/Images/ACTEW/Water%20and%20Sewerage/Water%20supply/Googong%20dam%20banner.ashx

http://www.actew.com.au/~/media/Images/ACTEW/Water%20and%20Sewerage/Water%20supply/Corin%20Dam%20banner.ashx

http://www.envcomm.act.gov.au/actsoe2011/report2011/soe11-landwater-fig10.jpg

http://www.health.gov.ws/portals/189/support%20files/water-drop.jpg

http://www.outbackencounter.com/images/images_processed/canberra_landscape_waterfeature.jpg

http://www.thecuttingedgenews.com/uploads/cmimg_53766.jpg

http://www.utilitymagazine.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Cotter-Dam-Aerial-7.jpg

Books:

Children’s World Atlas Igloo Books Ltd 2008