Typhoid Fever

By: Adam Fore

General Overview

History

The first know case of typhoid fever was in 1607 when it was believed to have killed over 6,000 settlers in Jamestown, an English colony in Virginia. Another known mass killing of people by typhoid fever was during the civil war, where 80,000 soldiers died of either typhoid fever or dysentery.


What parts of the body does it affect?

Typhoid fever affects the chest, abdomen, and intestines.


How does it affect the body?

Typhoid causes the chest and abdomen to break out in an eruption of red spots on the chest and abdomen and causes severe intestinal irritation. It also causes fever, headache, constipation, malaise, chills, myalgia, confusion, delirium, intestinal perforation, and death in severe cases.


Forms of Typhoid Fever

Only Classic Typhoid Fever

Causes

Typhoid fever is a life threatening disease of the digestive tract caused by the bacterium, Salmonella typhi.


How is the disease transmitted?

Typhoid fever is acquired from ingesting food or beverages that have been handled by a person that either carries the disease or is sick from the disease. A small number of people that recover from typhoid fever will continue to carry and spread the disease for some time unless they are properly contained. After patients have recovered from typhoid and handle food or small children at their work will be barred legally from working until it has been determined that they no longer carry the disease. Another source of transmission is sewage that has been contaminated by Salmonella typhi. This contaminated sewage could then get into the water used for drinking and washing food and then be transmitted to a person, especially in third world countries where they don't have sophisticated sewage systems.

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Incidence

How many people does this disease affect?

In the developing world, typhoid affects 21.5 million people. In 2000, it was estimates that typhoid fever caused 220,000 worldwide.


Does it affect a certain age group?

It affects people of all ages.


Does it affect a certain ethnic group?

It affects all ethnic groups.


What is its morality rate?

When antibiotics are used- About 1%

When no antibiotics are used- 10% to 30%

Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms


  • Poor Appetite
  • Headaches
  • Aches and Pains
  • Fever of as high as 104 Degrees Fahrenheit
  • Lethargy
  • Diarrehea

Diagnosis

What tests do doctors run?

Only have to identify S. typhi in your blood, tissue, or other bodily fluid. Obtain this information by taking a small sample of your blood, tissue, or other bodily fluid.

Treatment

Treated with Antibiotics and Vaccines

Prevention

  • Get Vaccines
  • Wash Hands
  • Avoid Untreated Water
  • Avoid Raw Foods and Vegetables