Kyle Qian

Vitals of Biomes

The tundra is spread across the Northern Hemisphere. It covers around 20% of the Earth's surface. It has strong winds, little precipitation, short summer days, very long and cold winters, poor soil, and permafrost, a layer of permanently frozen subsoil.

Climate of Biomes

The tundra has an average annual precipitation of less then 100 mm of rainfall and an average annual temperature of -28 degrees Celsius. The two main seasons in a tundra are winter and summer. The average temperature during the summer is 3 degrees Celsius while the average winter temperature temperature is -34 degrees Celsius. The tundra is also a very windy place with winds blowing up to 60 mph. During the summer, the top layer of soil may thaw to allow plants to grow.

Plant Lives

There are only around 1,700 species in the tundra. The plants that grow here are mainly shrubs, sedges, mosses, lichens, and grass.The growing season here is only 50-60 days long.
5 Species of Plants:
Arctic Moss- The arctic moss stores nutrients so that new leaves can be made quickly in the spring. It is also close to the ground so winds don't affect it.
Arctic Willow- The arctic willow can produce a pesticide which is used to keep bugs off of it. It also has a shallow root system which helps it live in permafrost.
Bearberry- This plant has leathery leaves and fine silky hair to survive the cold.
Caribou Moss- It can go a long period of time without needing water. Also, it can go dormant when there are not enough resources.
Pasque Flower- It is covered with fine silky hair to insulate it and also grows low to the ground to avoid the wind.


There are 48 species of land animals found in the tundra. Even though there isn't much biodiversity, there is a lot of each species. These consist mostly of hares, rodents, wolves, foxes, bears, and deer.
5 Species of Animals:
Arctic Fox- This animal has long fur to protect it from the cold and also can change its fur color in order to camouflage.
Caribou- Caribous have hooves to support it in the snow. They also have high metabolic rate and can survive harsh conditions.
Polar Bear- These bears have a thick layer of blubber to protect it from the cold. They are also good swimmers.
Musk Ox- These animals have long hair that can keep it warm.
Ermine- Ermine can shed its coat in order to camouflage in the winter. This lets it escape predators.

Musk Ox and Caribou Competition- Both of these animals feed on sedges. When food gets scarce, these two animals could fight over territory where the food is.
Polar Bear and Arctic Fox Cooperation- The polar bear doesn't mind the arctic fox eating scraps as long as the fox doesn't get in its way.
Predator/ Prey Relationships:
Polar Bear/ Arctic Fox
Arctic Wolf/ Caribou
Brown Bear/ Arctic Hare
Snowy Owls/ Lemmings

Ecological Concerns

Pollution from mining and drilling has polluted the air, lakes, and rivers in the tundra. The polar bear is one of the many endangered species in the tundra and the arctic fox is another. The tundra plays a large role in regulating the temperature. It also is a key factor in global biodiversity.

Interesting Facts

The tundra is the world's youngest biome; it was formed 10,000 years ago.
It is possible to experience 24 hours of sun during the summer and 24 hours of darkness during the winter.