Political Machines

is a political organization

Political Bosses

is a person who wields the power over a particular political region or constituency


a shoot or twig inserted into a slit on the trunk or stem of a living plant, from which it receives sap.

Credit Mobilier

scandal of 1872 involved the Union Pacific Railroad and the credit mobilier of America construction company in the building of the eastern portion of the First Transcontinental Railroad.

Boss Tweed

a river flowing E from S Scotland along part of the NE boundary of England into the North Sea. 97 miles (156 km) long.


the support given by a patron.

Pendleton Civil Service Act

is a federal law established in 1883 that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit