North American Natives

By: Samantha Burnette

Anasazi

The Anasazi were the ancestors of Pueblo in 500-1200 AD. They constructed dams, ditches, and canals to trap rain from tops of mesa and channel to gardens on canyon floor. Their house was made of adobe and stone, they were multi-storied, they were apartment like structures, and lived long walls of cliffs or large plazas. Heart of civilization in Chaco Canyon was Pueblo Bonito where there was a massive complex of more than 1000 people. From Pueblo, they built roads for trading networks. The craftsmen made turquoise jewelry, woven baskets, (black on white) pottery. They heavily influenced art and architecture of late groups such as Hopi and Zuni. They were the 2 largest groups of Pueblo today. They left perhaps from many droughts.

Adena

Adena collectively known as the Eastern Woodlands peoples. They lived in Ohio valley region around 700 BC. They grew squash, sunflowers, gourds, and barley. They produced exquisite copper jewelry and fine pottery. Also, they elaborate burial mounds made up of log structures covered by piles of Earth.

Hopewell

Hopewell collectively known as the Eastern Woodlands peoples, too. They arrived in Ohio valley around 300 BC. They built mounds some were 40 feet high and 100 feet wide. Artifacts found suggest extensive TRADE network. Adena and Hopewell both referred to as "Mound Builders."

Mississippians

Mississippians arrived in Mississippi valley by 800 AD. They had plants that used for many food and when added maize and beans had an increase in population. When they increased in population, it caused need for more land. More land resulted in numerous cities with up to 10,000 people-largest was Cahokia. Cahokia is located near present-day East St. Louis. In the center of city of Cahokia's was a massive mound aprox. 100 feet high base of more than 14 acres (larger than Great Pyramid in Egypt). It is surrounding this massive mound were 120 smaller mounds. All these Mississippi civilizations collapsed by the beginning of 1300's AD, but all influenced other eastern Woodlands people through their agricultural practices of large scale Farming with beans and corn and mound building.