The Menstrual Cycle

Kendall Teague

Menstrual Cycle

Definition- The process of ovulation and menstruation in women and other female primates.

The Menstrual Cycle has 4 different stages.

The 4 Stages

  • ( day 1-13) Follicle Stage- In the pre-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the ovarian follicle will go through a series of transformations called cumulus expansion. In this stage the hormone estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to grow.
  • (Day 14) Ovulation stage- Ovulation is what happens when a mature egg is released from your ovarian follicle to the nearest fallopian tube during your menstrual cycle. The increase in LH triggers ovulation. The egg then travels into the uterus.
  • ( day 15-28) Corpus Luteum Stage ( Luteal Phase)- During the luteal phase, the ovum will travel through the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. If fertilized by a sperm, it may implant there 6-12 days later.
  • ( 1- 5) Menstruation Stage- The menstrual phase is a woman's monthly bleeding, commonly referred to as your period. The Menstrual blood is shedded from the lining of the uterus. The period will last 3-7 days.


Definition- An abnormal absence of menstruation.

Cause- It most often occurs as a natural part of life, such as during pregnancy or breastfeeding, but it can also signal a more serious condition.

Excessive exercise, eating disorders, or extreme stress can also be factors.


  • Breast size changes
  • weight gain/ weight loss
  • Discharge from the breast
  • voice changes.


Definition- painful menstruation, typically involving abdominal cramps.

There are 2 types, Primary & secondary.

Cause- primary- Excessive levels of hormones that make your uterus contract during menstruation and childbirth

secondary- Fibroids, endometriosis, STI.

Symptoms- The main symptom is pain in the lower abdomen during menstruation and may also be felt in your hips, lower back, or thighs. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lightheadedness, or general achiness.

premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Definition- refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a woman's period

Causes- Changes in horomones, chemical changes in the brain, depression


  • Ance
  • tender breasts
  • bloating
  • feeling tired
  • mood changes


Definition- the ceasing of menstruation.

Causes- As you approach your late 30s, your ovaries start making less estrogen and progesterone, and your fertility declines.


  • Hot flashes
  • Vaginal dryness
  • night sweats