US History Unit 2 Vocab

Joshua Durago period 2

19th Amendment

Women's suffrage or gave women the right to vote

18th Amendment

Prohibiting the sale of alcohol

17th Amendment

Direct election of senators; wanted to decrease corruption

16th Amendment

allows congress to charge an income tax

Sherman Anti-trust Act

A landmark federal statue in this history of the United States antitrust law passed by Congress in 1890

Children's Bureau 1912

President Taft created the Children's Bureau to "investigate and reform the welfare of children"

Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)

Federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry; required that railroads be "reasonable and just"

Meat Inspection Act

works to prevent altered meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions

William Taft

busted Stanard oil in 1911; created the Children's Bureau

Thedore Roosevelt

He created the Bureau of Corporation to investigate monopolies and trusts; enforced the Sherman anti-trust act

Jacob Riis

Described the poverty, Diseases, and crime that afflicted many immigrant neighborhoods in the book How the Other Half Lives

Upton Sinclair

Acquired fame from his muckraking novel, The Jungle, which conditions to the meat packing industry

William "Boss" Tweed

Leader of New York City's corrupt Tammany Hall political organization during the 1860s and early; provided essential services to create significant voting strength

Samuel Gompers

In 1966 delegates from over 20 of the nation's trade unions organized the American Federation of Labor

Henry Ford

Learned that the less people had to move, the faster they would work; produced the assembly line which lowered the cost of the Model T

Thomas Edison

inventor of the photograph, light bulb, and Kinetoscope

Cornelius Vanderbilt

was a self-made Multi-millionaire; became one of the largest steamship operator; reputation for being fiercely competitive and ruthless

JP Morgan

One of the most powerful bankers of his era; used his influence to help stabilize American financial markets during several economic crises, including the panic of 1907

Andrew Carnegie

Scottish immigrant who amassed a fortune in the steel industry

John D Rockefeller

He established Standard Oil, which by the early 1800s controlled some 90 percent of the US refineries and pipelines

Muckraker

Writers who exposed filth and corruption in society; wrote about other social injustices

Progressivism

A reform movement that occurred in the early 1900s as a response to the problems created from urbanization and industrialization

Social Gospel Movement

From about 1870 to 1920; religious reformers strove to improve conditions in the cities according to the biblical ideals charity and justice

Gospel of Wealth

Wealthy Americans had the responsibility to donating money to further social progress; believe the wealth should also have higher tax burden

Populist Party

A movement by farmers to increase their political power

Americanization

This was a process in which immigrant school children were taught English language as well as culture

Social Darwinism

Is a social theory that attempts to adapt Charles Darwin's Natural selection principles and apply it to society; It is used to explain poverty and to justify class distinction and the imbalances of power between races and nations

Gilded Age

The Industrial Revolution period was known as the Gilded Age was a term coined by Mark Twain; meaning a layer of glitter over a cheap base

Nativism

A preference for native`born people and the desire to limit immigration

Ethnic Enclaves

Most immigrants settled in cities, they lived in neighborhoods that were separated into ethnic groups

Tenements

The majority of urban dweller were part of the working class who lived in the city tenements, or dark and crowded multi-family apartment

Ellis Island

A small island in New York Harbor. It served as a processing center for most immigrants arriving on the East Coast after 1892

Political Machine

a informal political group designed to keep power

Horizontal Integration

When a company takes over or buys out a competitor in an effort to gain market share

Vertical Integration

When a company owns all of the different businesses on which it depends for its operation

Robber Baron

A businessman who uses ruthless business tactics

trust

A group of corporation run by one board of directors.(still a monopoly)

Laissez Faire

When the Government does not interfere with companies

American Industrial Revolution

With the Civil war over, American Industry expanded and millions of citizens left their farms to work in mines and factories