Amendments 13, 22, & 24
Natallie, Kyndal, and Hayley
"No president can be elected to more than 2 terms."
Passed: March 21, 1947
Ratified: February 27, 1951
- President George Washington set a two-term precedent in 1796 by declining from running for a third term.
- Two centuries later, on November 5, 1940, Franklin D. Roosevelt went on to win another election, making it his third term as President.
- This caused speculation and some of his democratic supporters to leave.
- The Republican Party was also against this decision, and talk of speculation started in 1944.
- A republican candidate also mentioned that "a potential 16-year term for Roosevelt was a threat to democracy."
- In March 1947, a republican-controlled congress approved the 22nd amendment, excluding the president in office.
- A few years later, in Frebruary of 1951, enough states where willing to ratify the ammendmet.
- Some members of congress have made efforts to repeal the amendment, but nothing has made it out of committee.
- This amendment effects each and every president who would have run for a third-term.
- I believe it is healthy to not have the same president for an extended amount of time. Change is sometimes necessary and teaches one how to adapt to change in life.
"States can not require voters to pay a poll tax to vote in federal elections."
Proposed: August 27, 1962
Passed: January 23, 1964
- Many Southern states adopted a poll tax in the late 1800s.
- Even though the 15th amendment gave former slaves the right to vote, many poor African Americans (and even white people), did not have enough money to vote.
- Many Southern states defended the tax by saying that a property qualification (having enough wealth to be worthy of voting) was as old as America itself.
- Civil Rights advocates countered that because the tax fell disproportionately on blacks, it violated the 14th amendment's equal protection clause.
- So Congress passed the 24th amendment, and it was one more step on the road to equality under the law.
- I believe that the 24th amendment left a positive impact on the US, because without it, there would be thousands upon thousands of Americans who would still not be allowed to vote today.
"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."
Passed on January 31,1865
Ratified on December 6,1865
- 13th amendment was passed after the Civil War.
- Abolishing slavery was debated by the senate March 31,1864-April 7, 1864.
- April 8, 1864 Senate passed the 13th amendment.
- June 15,1864 House of Representatives defeated the 13th amendment, with 93 in favor and 65 opposed (less than 2/3).
- December 6,1864 Abraham Lincoln's Fourth Annual message to congress to "recommend the reconsideration and passage of the measure at the present session."
- January 6,1865- January 28,1865 House of Representatives debated.
- February 1,1865 Abraham Lincoln signed a joint resolution submitting the 13th amendment to the states.
- The 13th amendment included "involuntary servitude" which covers a broader range of labor arrangements, where a person is forced to work by the use or threatened use of physical or legal coercion.
- December 18,1865 Secretary of State William Seward issued the Ratification of the 13th amendment.