Periodic Table Tour

Mady Bixby

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THE DIFFERENT GROUPS

Alkali Metals

  • Very reactive metals
  • Does not occur freely in nature
  • One electron in outer shell
  • Malleable and ductile
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity
  • Softer than most other metals
  • Can explode if exposed to water


Examples: Lithium and Sodium

Alkaline (Rare) Earth Metals

  • Properties depend on the ease with which electrons are lost
  • Two electrons in outer shell
  • Low electron affinities
  • Low electronegativities
  • Readily form divalent cations
  • Very reactive
  • Not found free in nature


Examples: Calcium and Barium

Halogens

  • Reactive
  • Range from solid to liquid to gas at room temperature
  • High electronegativities
  • Particularly reactive with alkali metals and alkaline earths
  • 7 electrons in outer shells


Examples: Chlorine and Iodine

Nonmetals

  • Doesn't easily conduct electricity or heat
  • Very brittle, can't be made into wires or sheets
  • Gas or solid at room temperature
  • Does not reflect light


Examples: Oxygen and Carbon

Metalloids

  • Found among metal and non-metal line, excluding Aluminum
  • Both metal and non-metal properties
  • Silicon and Germanium are semi-conductors
  • Useful in uses of computers and calculators


Examples: Boron and Silicon

Noble Gases

  • Not considered inert until 1960s
  • Have the maximum number of electrons possible in their outer shell, making them stable
  • Found in group 18

Transition Metals

  • Ductile and malleable
  • Conduct electricity and heat
  • Valence electrons present in more than 1 shell
  • Iron, cobalt, and nickel are only elements known to produce a magnetic field


Examples: Iron and Cobalt

Actinides

  • All radioactive
  • High diversity in oxidation numbers
  • All unstable
  • Occur in nature as sea water and minerals
  • Ability to undergo nuclear reactions


Examples: Uranium and Americium

Lanthanides

  • All are uniformly similar
  • Have magnetic characteristics
  • Relatively abundant in Earth's crust
  • Bright, silvery appearance
  • Very reactive
  • Burn easily in air


Examples: Terbium and Neodymium

Post-Transition Metals

  • Known as "poor metals"
  • Solid metal under standard conditions
  • Malleable and ductile
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity
  • Fairly high density


Examples: Tin and Aluminum