When: He was born January 19, 1813, Charlton, United Kingdom.
What: He invented the first process for mass-producing steel inexpensively, essential to the development of sckscrapers. An American, William Kelly, had held a patent for "A system of iron" a method of steel production known as the pneumatic process of steel making.
Why: Modern steel is made using technology based on Bessemers process for steel making on November 11, 1856. It's patent number is 16082.
Where: Bessemer first invented steel in the 1850s. The British did not have much interest in his invention, so he took his steel to France where they paid a lot more attention to the spinning project.