Reproductive System

Male and Female

Human Body Systems: Reproductive System

Male Reproductive System

  • sex cell for males/male gametes are called sperm
  • sperm meets female’s egg/ovum in female’s reproductive system to create a new individual by fertilizing the female’s egg
  • males have reproductive organs or genitals inside and outside the pelvis
  • Male Genitals
    • the testicles
      • produce hormones including testosterone (hormone that causes boys to develop deeper voices, bigger muscles, body/facial hair, and it stimulates the production of sperm)
    • the duct system (epididymis and the vas deferens)
      • Vas Deferens-muscular tube that passes testicles and transports sperm fluid, semen
      • Epididymis-set of coiled tubes (one for each testicle) that connects to the vas deferens:
      • Scrotom-pouch-like structure that has epididymis and testicles hanging out of the pelvis in order to maintain temperature (needs to be cooler than body temperature to produce sperm) (size changes involuntarily)
    • the accessory glands (seminal vesicles and prostate gland)
      • provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm
      • Seminal Vesicles- sac-like structures attached to vas deferens
      • Prostate Gland-produces some of the parts of semen; just below the bladder
    • penis
      • opening for semen and urine to exit the body
      • has two parts
        • shaft- main part
        • glans- the tip (sometimes called the head)

Female Reproductive System

  • Female sex cells are the egg/ovum
  • Carries offspring through pregnancy and childbirth
  • protects and nourishes fertilized egg until fully developed
  • Entirely in the pelvis (lowest part of the abdomen)
  • Parts of Female Reproductive System
    • External
      • Vulva-external part of the female reproductive organs (covers the opening to the vagina and other reproductive organs
      • Labia-skin flaps surrounding vaginal area
      • Clitoris-small sensory organ
      • Urethra-canal that carries urine from bladder to outside of body
    • Internal
      • Vagina
        • muscular hollow tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the uterus: can change size to fit what is needed (tampon-baby)
        • lined with mucous membranes to keep it protected and moist
        • Function: pathway for sexual intercourse: pathway for child to exit mother: route for menstrual blood (the period) to leave the body from the uterus: connects uterus to cervix
      • Uterus
        • also called womb
        • has thick lining and muscular walls
        • hold child (can contract or expand)
      • Fallopian Tubes
        • connects uterus to the ovaries
        • end wraps around ovary
        • transports egg to uterus
      • Ovaries
        • every woman has two (one to the left and one to the right of the uterus)
        • produce, store, and release eggs into the fallopian tube
          • process called ovulation
        • Produce sex hormones
          • Estrogen
          • Progesterone


Male Reproductive Diseases

Testicular Cancer

Definition:
  • cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum
  • the most common form of cancer in men between the ages of 15 and 35. It can occur in older men, and rarely, in younger boys.
  • White men are more likely than African-American and Asian-American men to develop this type of cancer
  • two main types of testicular cancer: seminomas and nonseminomas
    • Seminoma: This is a slow-growing form of testicular cancer usually found in men in their 30s and 40s. The cancer is usually just in the testes, but it can spread to the lymph nodes. Seminomas are very sensitive to radiation therapy.
    • Nonseminoma: This more common type of testicular cancer tends to grow more quickly than seminomas. Nonseminoma tumors are often made up of more than one type of cell, and are identified according to these different cell types:Choriocarcinoma (rare), Embryonal carcinoma, Teratoma, Yolk sac tumor
Symptoms:
  • There could be no symptoms but they usually are Discomfort or pain in the testicle, or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum, Pain in the back or lower abdomen, Enlargement of a testicle or a change in the way it feels, Excess development of breast tissue (gynecomastia), however, this can occur normally in adolescent boys who do not have testicular cancer, Lump or swelling in either testicle
Tests:
  • A physical examination typically reveals a firm lump (mass) in one of the testicles. When someone holds a flashlight up to the scrotum, the light does not pass through the lump
Treatment:
  • It depends on the type of testicular tumor and the stage of the tumor
  • 1st step is to determine the type of cancer by under a microscope
  • 2nd step is to determine how far the cancer has spread in a body to know the stage of cancer
  • 3rd step is to determine the best type of treatment for you
    • surgical treatment to remove the testicle and possible the lymph nodes (if you have both types of testicle cancer)
    • radiation therapy using high doses or x-rays or other high-energy rays to prevent the tumor from returning (seminomas)
    • chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells (seminomas or nonseminomas)
Statistics:
  • one of the most treatable and cureable cancer
  • survival rate for men with early stage seminoma is greater than 95%

Epididymitis

Definition:
  • the swelling (inflammation) of the epididymis, the tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens
  • most common in young men 19-25
  • usually caused by the spread of a bacterial infection from the urethra, prostate, or bladder or the use of a medication amiodarone which prevents abnormal heart rhythms
Symptoms:
  • begin with a low-grade fever, chills, and a heavy sensation in the testicle area where it becomes more and more sensitive to pressure; Blood in the semen; Discharge from the urethra (the opening at the end of the penis); Discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvis; Fever; Groin pain; Lump in the testicle; Pain during ejaculation; Pain or burning during urination; Painful scrotal swelling (epididymis is enlarged); Tender, swollen groin area on affected side; Testicle pain that gets worse during a bowel movement
Tests:
  • Physical examination shows a red, tender, and smetimes swollen lump (mass) on the affected side of the scrotum
  • May be enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area and a discharge from the penis
Treatment:
  • medications for you and your sexual partner require specific anti-biotics
  • bed rest while elevating the scrotum and ice packs to the area
Statistics:
  • usually gets better with antibiotic treatment
  • no reduction in sexual or reproductive abilities
  • condition may return

Erectile Dysfunction

Definition:

  • occurs when a man can no longer get or keep an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse

Symptoms:

  • trouble getting an erection, trouble keeping an erection, reduced sexual desire

Tests:

  • will need to check blood flow down there
  • need a physical exam, blood test, urine test, ultrasound, overnight erection test, psychological exam

Treatment:

  • either Slidenafil (Viagra), Tadalafil (Cialis), Vardenafil (Levitra, Staxyn)
  • this will increase blood flow and allows you to get an erection in response to sexual stimulation

Female Reproductive Diseases

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Definition:

  • a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of a female sex hormones
  • may lead to menstrual cycle changes, cysts n the ovaries, trouble getting pregnant, and other health changes
  • hard to mature eggs
  • diagnosed in women in their 20s and 30s

Symptoms:

  • no period after you have had or more normal ones during puberty
  • irregular periods
  • develop male-like characteristics: lots of body hair, decreased breast size, enlargement of the clitoris, thinning of the hair on the head, called male-pattern baldness, voice gets deeper
  • bad acne
  • dark or thick skin markings and creases around the armpits, groin, neck, and breasts
  • weight gain and obesity

Tests:

  • pelvic exam
    • swollen ovaries
    • swollen clitoris (very rare)
  • blood tests to check...
    • estrogen level, FSH level, LH level, testosterone level
  • vaginal ultrasound
  • pelvic laparoscopy

Treatment:

  • losing weight, staying active
  • birth control to help regulate periods
  • glucophage (metformin)
  • and other medications to help take away some of the numerous symptoms

Statistics:

  • difficulty getting pregnant
  • more likely to get endometrial cancer, infertility, and/or breast cancer

Endometriosis

Definition:

  • female health disorder that occurs when cells from the lining of the uterus grow in other areas of the body
  • Every month, a woman's ovaries produce hormones that tell the cells lining the uterus (womb) to swell and get thicker. The body removes these extra cells from the womb lining (endometrium) when you get your period.
  • Usually diagnosed between 25-35 of only women

Symptoms:

  • painful periods, pain in the lower abdomen before and during menstruation
  • cramps for a week or two before menstruation and durning menstruation
  • pain during or following sexual intercourse
  • pain with bowel movements
  • pelvic or low back pain that may occur at any time during the menstrual cycle
  • may be no symptoms

Tests:

  • pelvic exam, transvaginal ultrasound, pelvic laparoscopy

Treatment:

  • depends on age, severity of symptomes, severity of disease, whether you want children in the future
  • exercise and relaxation techniques
  • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Advil and Aleve, or other prescription painkillers to relieve cramping and pain
  • medications to control pain
  • hormone mediation to stop the endometriosis from getting worse
  • surgery to remove the area os endometriosis or the entire uterus and ovaries
  • birth control

Statistics:

  • “incurable” but medications can relieve some or all of the symptoms over the years
  • best cure is to remove uterus, fallopian tubes, and both ovaries (a hysterectomy)

Dysmenorrhea

Definition:

  • painful menstruation
  • two types:
    • Primary dysmenorrhea-painful regular (ovulatory) menstrual cycles; the pain is caused by utrine muscle contractions caused by high levels of prostaglandins produced in the lining and body of the uterus after ovulation
    • Secondary dysmenorrhea-painful periods due to an underlying condition, such as Endometriosis (a condition involving the lining of the uterus or womb) or infection, that can begin at any age

Symptoms:

  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, irritability
  • pain (sharp and/or throbbing) dull and aching
    • typically located in the lower abdomen and may radiate to the low back or thighs

Tests:

  • pelvic examination
  • pelvic ultrasound (a test that uses sound waves to examine structures in the pelvis)
  • pelvic laparoscopy (a thin, lighted tube inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to view structures in the pelvis)

Treatment:

  • varies on condition
  • medications: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or oral contraceptives
  • using a heating pad on abdomen or warm bath
  • acupuncture can reduce pain

Careers~Male

Urologist

Name of the career (type of doctor or specialist) that would specialize in these diseases?

Urologist

What are the college degree(s) you must have to achieve this career goal?

According to the American Urological Association (AUA), it takes four years of undergraduate work, then four years of medical school and then a minimum of five years in an internship and residency to become a urologist

What colleges can you attend locally to achieve or begin to achieve this career goal?

University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas in Dallas, TX

Name 3 activities of interest to you that someone in this career does on a regular basis.

helping people whenever they need help, being in a clean place talking to nice people all the time, making people happy by solving their problems

Name 3 skills you need to be successful in this career.

Decision-making/ Problem Solving, Math, Good Social/Communication Skills

Which skill do you believe is the most important? Why?

Decision making/Problem Solving because there are tons of diseases out there that a person can have therefore you have to make sure your decision is right for if you give a wrong diagnosis, they will not get better. Also, there are many types of treatments for each disease therefore it always depends on which person you are treating and you have to evaluate correctly and come to the right conclusion.

Name 3 traits you have that would make this career a good fit for you.

sociable, intelligent, caring

What is the average annual pay for a career like this?

$206,770 annually--> about $99.41 hourly

Name 3 careers that go hand-in-hand with the one you selected.

Family/General Practitioner, Gynecologist, Therapist

Is this career growing in the U.S?

Yes. It has a 21.8% growing rate

Based on what you discovered about this career, is it one you would like to pursue? Why?

No because I am not sure I am the right person to be looking at boys' private parts all day long for I may not be mature about it yet.


Careers~Female

OB/GYN

Name of the career (type of doctor or specialist) that would specialize in these diseases?

Obstetrician Gynecologist

What are the college degree(s) you must have to achieve this career goal?

Undergraduate (4 years), Medical School (4 years), 4 years of Residency

What colleges can you attend locally to achieve or begin to achieve this career goal?

University of Texas Southwest in Dallas, TX

Name 3 activities of interest to you that someone in this career does on a regular basis.

love babies and take care of them (babysitter), interacts with mothers and i am very polite, see a child's first moment and see a family's reaction

Name 3 skills you need to be successful in this career.

math, communication, problem-solving

Which skill do you believe is the most important? Why?

Communication because a pregnant mother has hormones all over the place which usually affects the father. Therefore,the mother and father might be a bit difficult for they may be a bit miserable and when everything is chaotic when birthing for the multitude of things possibly going wrong,you need to be calm and be able to communicate with your staff and patient(s) to make sure everything goes smoothly.

Name 3 traits you have that would make this career a good fit for you.

friendly/happy, caring, calm when needed

What is the average annual pay for a career like this?

$161,490 annually-->$77.64 hourly

Name 3 careers that go hand-in-hand with the one you selected.

Urologist, Family Practitioner, Therapeutic Servies (for Couples)

Is this career growing in the U.S?

Yes it is growing at a 21.8% rate

Based on what you discovered about this career, is it one you would like to pursue? Why?

Possible because I love hanging out with women and I love to hear about babies. To see how they enter the world and to be able to see a family see their child for the first time, is priceless.

WORK CITED

By: Jazzy Alvarez

HST-2nd period

Done: 02/20/13