Chapter 8 Review: Hinduism in India
By Michelle Crim
Vedas: The holy rituals written down by priests. The oldest book in the Vedas, Rig-Veda, is the only way we know anything about the Aryans.
Varnas: The four main social classes of Ancient India.
Brahmans: The Brahmans were the first and highest class according to the Varnas. The Brahmans were priests who studied and taught the Vedas, performed religious ceremonies, and ensured the welfare of people.
Kshatriyas: The Kshatriyas were the second class of the Varnas. The Kshatriyas were warriors and rulers who studied the Vedas, lead the government, and headed the army.
Vaisyas: The Vaisyas were the third class of the Varnas. The Vaisyas were common people, merchants, artisans, and farmers who tended herds, cared for the land, and made and sold products.
Sudras: The Sudras were the fourth class of the Varnas. The Sudras were made up of unskilled laborers and servants who served the other Varnas.
Pariahs: The Pariahs were the lowest class of the Varnas. The Pariahs were made uo of slaves who performed tasks considered unclean and lived outside of the cities.
Dharma: The duties of each male in each varna.
Mahabharata: The epic poem that outlines the ideal that one must do their duty no matter what.
Ramayana: The epic poem that describes the struggle between good and evil.
Upanishads: The religious writings that searched for the truth behind the gods.
Brahman Nerguna: The universal spirit.
Reincarnation: The rebirth of the soul.
Ahisma: The nonviolence towards all living things.
Moksha: The release from the pain of rebirth, to complete oneness with Brahman Nerguna.
The holy rituals written down by priests.
Warriors and rulers in ancient India.
Religious writings that searched for the truth behind the gods
Siddhartha Gautama: The founder of Buddhism, born the Prince of Kshatriya in 566 B.C., Age 29-left and wandered through India in search of "why does suffering occur and how to end it," lived as a hermit for 7 yrs., enlightened while preaching.
The Four Noble Truths: 1. All people suffer and know sorrow, 2. People suffer because their desires bind them to reincarnation, 3. End suffering by eliminating desires, 4. Eliminate desires by following the Eight fold Path.
The Eight Fold Path: States, know truth, resist evil, say nothing to hurt others, respect life, work for the good of others, free their minds of evil, control their thoughts, and practice meditation, leads to nirvana
Nirvana: Freedom from rebirth (a state of extinction)
Stupas: Large stone mounds over the bones of holy people
Theravada: South and southeast Asia, regards Buddha as a teacher
Mahayana: China, Korea, Japan; Buddha as a divine being and savior
The Four Noble Truths
The four central beliefs of Buddhist teachings.
The Eight Fold Path
The steps that leads to Nirvana
Large, elaborate stone mounds built over the bones of holy people
Asoka: Chandragupta's grandson, began rule in 274 B.C., fierce army, owned 2/3 of Indian sub continent, became buddhist after seeing bloodied battle field, passed laws stressing concern for others, created free hospitals and vet clinics, roads, rest houses.
Rock Edicts: Laws written on stones throughout empire in local languages
Chandragupta I: Started Gupta empire in 310 AD, Madadha base of his kingdom, rule for more than 200 years (Golden Age), Small empire, did what he needed to do to maintain power
Panchatantra: Wrote moral storis through animals
Kalidasa: Wrote Shauntala
Chandragupta's grandson, Buddhist leader in 274 B.C.
Laws written on rocks in many languages
Started the Gupta Empire in 310 AD