The Industrial Revolution
By Mia Freid and Alex Herrera
France - Alex
- Took place after the 1789 revolution
- Civil code was set in place which eliminated the old guild restrictions and internal customs tariffs
- Country was still recovering from Napoleon's reign causing them a delayed industrial revolution when compared to England
- Did not posses access to large supplies of coal and iron
- Relied on timber instead
- Agriculture functioned effectively
- No excess workers like other nations
- The Catholic church continued to dominate religion
- Church was put under state control however in the aftermath of the revolution
- When the motor car was introduced at the end of the century aristocrats were the ones who purchased it
- Effect of the ancien regime could still be seen and felt in society
- Industrialization allowed the working class to step up to the higher social classes
- Efficient engineering industry
- Exported spinning machines and cotton looms
- De Wendel family helped introduce the steam engine and puddling kilns
- Photographic camera introduced in 1830s
- Helped depict what life was actually like during this labor intensive time
- Challenged the romanticism art movements and supported the realism movements
Primary: Eric Hobsbawm. The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848
-Britain played a significant role in the Industrial Revolution, they served as the leader during this time.
-Occurred in the early 18th century. Specifically, it really took off during 1780 to 1815
-Before this revolution, women stayed at home and did very little work. Now, they are finally being more seen as equal to men, they started working in factories.
-England was becoming progressively and progressively more industrial-based.
-The production increased due to the growth of British commerce, which ultimately promoting industry.
-Due to the increase of machine labor instead of human and animal labor, farmers moved to the cities to get employed in factories.
-The Price Revolution was additionally extremely crucial during the Industrial Revolution.
-Wages rose, this is because of the fact that capital energy was inexpensive.
-The concept of Capitalism was also very significant in Britain at the time, the surplus money was used for investment in ventures to make profit
-The Cotton Industry was extremely beneficial to the Industrial Revolution due to it made labor regarding cotton easier and was cheaper.
-Due to the increase of inventions and scientific ideals that were with them, religious worship decreased.
-These inventions and medicines were often life-saving, resulting in people becoming less involved with the Church.
-England went from agricultural and commercial focused to industrial based.
-The industrial Revolution also created philosophical and more scientific schools rather than religious based.
-Cities grew significantly, resulting in population growth.
-Inventions such as the steam engine made it incredibly easier for people to travel to various locations, people weren't staying in one place anymore.
-Commercial and affordable goods were being mass produced, benefiting society.
-The lower class had more access to what they didn't have before because of the cheaper and lowered prices of goods.
-There were many ideas that lead to the industrial revolution as well as the promotion of it.
-New inventions such as the Spinning Jenny and the steam engine in England were very new to the society because there was nothing like it at the time.
-These ideas greatly benefited society.
-The cotton industry was prominent during this time, Eli Whitney created an easier way to separate the cotton seeds from the cotton fiber.
-Iron and steel impacted the architecture during the industrial revolution.
-These created transportation systems and made life easier to the public of England.
-Many structures, museums, and monuments were built as well, including The Crystal Palace and the Victoria and Albert Museum.
(Primary source: Onedrive powerpoint and modern history source book.com)
Prussia - Collaborative
- Post Napoleon Prussia began to provide more freedoms to its people
- Prussia formerly invited citizens to enroll into school
- However there existed gaps and a great degree of variation from region to region
- Sought to catch up to the rest of the world, specifically England in technological advances during the industrial revolution
- Used education reforms to drive the revolution within their nation
- Farmers went from serf to subjects and began to posses their own land
- Prussia had become a world leader in education
- factory production increased the need for low-skilled and child workers
- Textile industry was where child labor was most prevalent
- Protestantism was the most practiced religion and the most significant minorities were Catholic and Jewish
-Education in Prussia contributed the improvement of Prussian society
-Education also influenced the start of the industrial revolution and benefited the people and the way of life.
-Prussia was behind all the other countries during this time regarding the industrial revolution, but education drove it to catch up and the accessibility to sources such as iron and coal made this scientific period of time easier to obtain.
-The invention of railroad and a system of free trade between Germanic states were very important.
-The region surrounding Prussian is relatively prosperous in iron and steel, this led to an increase on inventions and new ideas were made possible because of the accessible resoruces.
-Classicism was a major art movement that contributed to the architecture in Prussia during the industrial revolution.
-Many parks and monuments were created.
-Baroque was additionally another important art movement during this time that ultimately described the society and how it was organized.
Primary: Pollard, Sidney (1981), Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe