Volcanoes

Natural Disaters

What is it?

Have you ever wondered how a volcano forms? Were does it come from? Volcanoes may seem like very difficult items to learn about, but they really aren't. Volcanoes are pretty much a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock at the center of the earth. While most volcanoes form near tectonic plates, others would form near hot rocks inside the earth. These rocks are known as mantle plumes, which are found mostly around the Hawaiian area. Something really amazing though, about volcanoes is that they are formed when magma, found within the earths upper mantle, works it's way to the surface. When it reaches the surface , it erupts to form lava flows and ash deposits. Over the time the volcano erupts, it will grow bigger and bigger.

Some scientist have categorized volcanoes into three main categories: active, dormant, and extinct. These labels help to show the timeline of the volcanoes, and to keep track of the more dangerous ones. An Active volcano is one which has recently erupted and has a possibility that it may erupt again. An dormant volcano is one which has not erupted in a long time, but still has a slight chance of erupting in the future. Lastly, an extinct volcano is one that has not erupted in a thousand years and pretty much has no chance of eruption.

A typical volcano has many parts to it. The most important is most likely the cone to the volcano. This is made up of the many materials from the past eruptions. Another super important part is the magma. The magma is located under the volcano in a chamber which contains molten rock. [ Molten rock is called magma when it is under the volcano, and lava when it is above the volcano.] When the magma rises, it goes through an central tube called a conduit, then heading to the opening surface called a vent. Magma may also emerge from the side vents. Lastly. the typical bowl-shaped depression at the top of the volcano is called a crater.

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How does it Erupt?

There are many different stages to an volcano eruption. The eruptions, though, can vary for each volcano. It is most likely that the location and the style of the volcano meagerly affects how it erupts. If the volcano is near an vent and there are prevailing winds constantly near by the eruption will probably be a pretty big one. So now that you know more about volcanoes, let me tell you about the stages of an eruption!

The first stage of an eruption is steam eruption. Volcano eruptions often begin with a series of steam or pheatic explosions caused by an interaction of magma and groundwater. As the magma rises toward the surface, it heats downward to its boiling temperature and triggers the " flashing " of water to steam. This can cause shattering rocks, hurl large blocks and volcanic ash thousands of feet in the air. It can also excavate a crater into the ground.

The second stage of an eruption is the magma eruption. When the rich gas, rhyolitic magma, reaches the surface of the volcano, it starts some strong, violent explosive eruptions. The explosive activity usually blasts apart the magma into tiny, little fragments called tephra, which may rise to over 10 km above the vent. The tephra may drift tens to thousands kilometers down. The tephra can cause little to no damage to any life or property. Though, the fine ash can seriously disrupt social and economic activities for weeks and months.

The last stage of eruption of the volcano is the Lava flows. This is an non - explosive eruption of vicious magma to form one or more mound - shaped lava domes. Evidence from scientist have shown that magma usually erupts quietly because it is released during its upward journey instead of being trapped. This can change if the volcano is much bigger or smaller, but it usually stays the same.

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Are Underwater and Land Volcanoes the same?

Underwater or on land, both volcanoes are very similar, but still extremely different. Well, DUH, they are both volcanoes, but they each have their special features. Like, an Under Water volcano has another name - Submarine volcano. An underwater volcano does not explode with lava, but poisonous gases instead. [ That's great ] This gas can turn an ocean green in less than 5 minutes after the eruption. The gases are not hot like the lava, but you still don't want to be around when it occurs. The Land volcanoes explode with lava, but mattering the type of volcano, they can also spread gas through the air. Another thing that is different about the two volcanoes is that an Under Water volcano can form in the Deep seas, Shallow rivers or Large oceans. This is different from an Land volcano because, these type of volcanoes can only form on certain parts of the earth, while Under Water ones can form all over any types of waters. Lastly, Under water and Land volcanoes are different because the eruption is different. Land volcanoes erupt when there is an interaction of magma. Under Water volcanoes though start when the edges of plates push together.

Even though it seems like Land and Under Water volcanoes are extremely different, they have a lot of the same critiques. For starters, one similarity is that both volcanoes form a like one another. It starts out when the tectonic plates crash into each other and then it goes on. Some other similarity's is that the scientist have both categorized the volcanoes into four different headings. [ Cinder Cones, Composite Volcanoes, Shield Volcanoes and Lava Volcanoes ] Finally, the last similarity is that both Volcanoes are super dangerous. Even though they are beautiful to watch, you don't want to be to close.

Water Volcano

Did you know that Under Water volcanoes eventually over time reach the surface of the water? That's how the Hawaii islands were formed!
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How are The Ring of Fire and Volcanoes related?

Even though you can find volcanoes all over the world, The Ring of Fire captures the most unique and beautiful ones because of the ground underneath them. The Ring of Fire is an area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean that is home to a large number of the most famous earthquake and volcano eruptions. It is about 40,000 km [ 25,000 miles ] and is shaped exactly like an horseshoe. The Ring of Fire is an result of active plate boundaries - lots of them. These specific boundaries are known as subduction zones which are super powerful. They make treanches in the oceans that are just the right size for mountains, like volcanoes. That is why there is so much magma under the ground. Because of all the magma, it makes big eruptions on the underground that explodes through the mountains creating long lasting eruptions. The Ring of Fire is home to 452 volcanoes, which is 75% of the worlds active and dormant volcanoes. Thats a lot!

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Can they be Prevented?

Volcanoes damages 33% of land each and every year. Most people are smart enough to know not to grow any land or live near volcanoes - but you never know what can happen. Scientist are trying to find new ways to help prepare and predict when an volcano may erupt so there is time for everyone to evacuate. They are using items like seismographs to measure the trembling of the ground to coculate how quick the volcano is coming. There are many ways though to keep safe from an volcano. You first should always have an supply kit, that should include dried food and water, a supply of clothes and most importantly goggles and breathing masks. When getting an instruction to leave or evacuate an area, remember to obey those commands. There is no real way to be completely sure of when an volcano comes or how to deal with a safety plan. But as long as you follow directions and always keep on the look out, you will keep your family and loved ones safe.

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