Religions

By: Hannah Yao

Christianity

Christianity is one of the major religions in the world. Christianity developed out of Judaism in the 1st century of C.E. It is a religion that teaches about life, death, and the resurrection of Jesus Christ. People who follow Jesus Christ are called Christians. Christianity has many different branches of beliefs and practices. The three main branches of Christianity are Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism. Traditional Christian believe in the one and only true God, who is one being and exists as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and the belief that Jesus is the Messiah who was sent to the save the people of sins. Since Jesus is not considered a God, christianity is believed to be a monotheists, which means they only have one God. The history of Christianity goes back into Jewish ancestry and revolves around the 300 prophecies before Jesus Christ was born. Thousands of years later, Jesus did come. He was born to a virgin, and performed miracles such as healing and driving out demons, but he also preached, teaching the word of God. Jewish people were completely against him because they did not feel he was the messiah that was suppose to come down. This led to him being crucified under the roman rule. Death did not stop Jesus, he resurrected from the dead and proved that he was with God. To this day, Christians believe that he had died for humans sins, or wrong doings.


Scared text, Rituals, and Major holidays

They follow the Bible which is a book that includes stories and commandment that Christians must follow. It contains a variety of scriptures and a New and Old Testament. Not only do they read the bible, but Christian gathering at churches for worship, fellowship, study, and engagement with the world through evangelism and social action. They follow rituals such as being baptized, reconciliations, receiving the Eucharist (first communion), being confirmed, obeying holy orders, and praying often. Their major holidays are Lent, Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday (when Jesus was crucified), Easter, Pentecost, Advent, and Christmas.


Wanna know more what Christians believe?

Hinduism

Hinduism is the world's oldest religions. It is a religion that is mixed with religious, philosophical and cultural ideas that is usually worshipped in India. Hinduism believes in reincarnation, multiple manifestations, and believing in the liberation from the cycle of births and deaths. No one seems to know how hinduism started, but some people believe that it was created before India was even considered an independent country. Others believe that it was introduced by foreigners who referred to people living across that river Indus.

Here is another theory: www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9yWwFWpbRo



Gods and Holy Books

Hinduism is considered to be polytheistic, which is a religion that has more than one god. It is divided into 4 major sections the god of Shavia (devotees of Shiva), Vaishnava (devotes of the God of Vishnu), Shakta (devotees kf the goddess), and Smarta (those who understand the ultimate form of the divine and to be abstract and al ecompassing). While worshipping these Gods, they follow scared texts like the book is Vedas, Upanishads, Bhavgavad Gita, and Epics


Rituals and Holidays

Hinduism focuses on practicing on the importance of fulfilling their duties and associated both with ones social position and ones stage of life. They are expected to pass through four stages within their life. Stage 1 i known as brahmacharga, it takes place during the school years and is focused in acquiring knowledge and devolving character. The next chapter is called grastha this occurs in the middle years and is focused in worldly pursuits and pleasures such as marriage, family and career. Vanapratha is when ones children reaches adulthood, it is a time where they focus on spiritual things. The last step is called sanngasu, this occurs in the last years of life where one may abandon the world entirely for a life of contemplation. Rituals also consist of Ayurveda, Hatha yoga, kundalini yoga, Namaste greeting, Puja, The sadhu, and temple rituals.



There are many holiday such as:

Holi - festival of colors and spring

Mahashivaratri (Shiva Ratri) - night sacred to Shiva

Rama Navami - birthday of Lord Rama

Krishna Jayanti - birthday of Lord Krishna

Raksābandhana - renewing bonds between brothers and sisters

Kumbh Mela - pilgrimage every 12 years to four cities in India

Ganesha-Chaturthi (Ganesha Utsava) - festival of Ganesh

Dassera - victory of Rama over demon king Ravana

Navaratri - festival of Shakti (in Bengal) or Rama's victory over Ravana

Diwali - festival of lights and Laksmi




Buddhism

Buddhism is a religion that is a path of practice and spiritual development leading to insight into the true nature of reality. It is the practice of meditation which means changing yourself in order to develop the quantities if awareness, kindness, and wisdom. It first originated in northern India in the 5th century B.C.E. Currently, it is mostly practiced in Asia and in some western parts of America. It is traced all the way back to a man named Siddartha Gutama who is also known as buddha. He was not a god or prophet, he was a human being whi became Enlightened and understood life. Since there is no actual God, this region is neither monotheistic or polytheistic. He noticed the suffering in the world and set out to find a cure. He figured out that through meditation and analysis he found an enlightenment state being that got through the suffering. This experience developed over thousand of years which ultimately culminates in Enlightenment or Buddhahood. They also read books such as Pali Tipitika, Mayayana, and Vajrayana canons to gain more knowledge and understanding.


To learn more about Siddartha Gutman: www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNRiFQdPl_I






Rituals and Holidays

A main ritual of Buddhism is meditation, it is the process of transforming the mind. It decouples techniques that encourage and develop concentration,clarity, a stable emotional state, and a clear ability to see the pure nature of things. When you have finally mastered thins tranquility, you can experience me a transformative effect and have new understanding of life. Other rituals consist of:

Mantras - Sacred sounds

Mudras - Symbolic hand gestures

Prayer Wheels - Reciting mantras with the turn of a wheel

Pilgrimage - Visiting sacred


There are many holidays that Buddhists celebrate year round. They celebrate holidays like the Buddist New year, Vesak, Sangha Day, Dhamma Day, observance Day, Kathina Ceremony, festival of floating boats, elephant festival, the festival of the tooth, and ancestor day


Judaism

Judaism is a religious tradition that is traced back all the way to four thousand years ago. Jewish ancestry goes all the way back to biblical patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. It was first introduced to the ancient eastern region of Canaan. It evolved mostly from the tribe of Judah, Simeon and paternally from other Israelites. Although it was introduced, the religion did not become recognize until the 1st century C.E. Judasism is considered to be monotheistic, they believe in one God who is referred as God. Judaism has 5 scared texts that they obey and learn from. The Torah, Talmud, Midrash, the Rabbinic, and legal. Judaism also looks at the bible for Tanakh, an acronym for the texts of the Torah, Prophets, and Writings. Just like christianity, Judaism has many branches and believes. The four main movements within Judaism are Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist.


Beliefs, Rituals and Holidays

udaism is mostly about actions instead of beliefs. But that doesn't mean they don't take God wholeheartedly, they believe about god, human nature and the afterlife. It teaches that humankind was creates in the Divine image, meaning everyone is equally important, everyone has an infinite potential to do good in the world, and are responsible for consequences.


Some rituals that jewish people must follow are obeying Mitzvoth (commandments), the Rabbinic law, worshipping in a synagogue, worshiping and praying, attending weekly Sabbath prayer services and following the Jewish Dietary laws. They also have a various amount of holidays and festivals such as Shabbat, Days of awe, Hanukkah, Passover, Purim, Jewish new year, festival of booths, 15th of Sherat, and the day of Atonement.


What Is Judaism?

Islam

Islam is a monotheistic religion based on the Prophet of Muhammad in the 7th century. Their god is know as Allah. They say he is the creator, provider and determiner of human destiny. It was first founded in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in 622 CE.

The faith spread like wild fire and currently it is one of the world's popular religions. They believe they are born in a state of purity and imperfect yet capable of seeking God and doing good. Their purpose of life is to submit to the will of Allah and attain paradise after death. The Quran, sacred text of Islam, teaches of the prophet that was revealed. Islamic also practices sections called the Five Pillars. Which includes faith, prayer, fasting, pilgrimage and alms.


Rituals and Holidays


Muslims are known for complying rituals such as praying, fasting, pilgrimage, purification, and even am animal sacrifice. Every ritual is based on the 5 pillars. Besides all the rituals they celebrate interesting holidays. Islamic new year, prophet Muhammad's Birthday, The celebration concluding Ramadan, and the celebration concluding Hajj are only the major holidays.


Islamic Holidays