By: Mireya Hernandez and Rachel Bae
What is it?
Who is Most Likely to get it?
There around 100 babies in America who are born with this condition.
HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED
- Chest x-ray
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart
- <--- Ultrasound of the heart (echocardiogram)
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) - measures the electrical activity of the heart and shows the heart's electrical activity as line tracings on paper
- Holter monitor testing. - Longer ECG (could last days to weeks)
- Exercise stress test - test used to provide information about how the heart responds to exertion
- Cardiac catheterization. - A long, thin, flexible tube called a catheter is put into a blood vessel in your arm, groin (upper thigh), or neck and threaded to your heart. Contrast dye is put into the catheter and observed through an x-ray
- Cardiovascular Autonomic Reflex Test - Your body’s response to different stimuli, shown by changes in blood pressure and heart rate, will help your doctor understand how your autonomic nervous system is working.
- Laboratory Test
- Nuclear Imaging- radioactive tracer materials are administered and the radiation is detected, then formed into an image.
- Radiographic Test - short wavelength electromagnetic radiation used to create pictures of the internal structures of the chest.
Chest X-ray (Baby)
The swollen right atrium can be seen.
The tricuspid valve is elongated.
Chest Radiograph (Adult)
The right atrium is bigger than normal.
Heart rhythm disturbances --> medications may help control heart rate and maintain normal heart rhythm.
BUT at some point in time, surgery is often required because of heart complications such as heart failure.
Most common Surgery methods:
- Tricuspid Valve Repair
- Tricuspid Valve Replacement
- Closure of the Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): can close if there is a hole between atriums during surgery
- Maze Procedure: creates scar tissue to redirect electrical signal to a proper flow
Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) can treat arrhythmia
- Removes tissue using the heat generated from frequency currents to direct electrical signals
More Severe cases may require a Heart Transplant
Below: Kieron Balfour, of Blantyre, taken following his heart surgery.
Earlier symptoms develop --> more severe the disease.
Children diagnosed after one year tend to have a very good prognosis and can usually live a normal life.
Some may have either no symptoms or very mild symptoms.
Others may worsen over time --> developing blue coloring (cyanosis), heart failure, heart block, or dangerous heart rhythms.
A severe leakage can lead to swelling of the heart and liver, and congestive heart failure.
- Blood clots from the heart to other parts of the body
- Brain abscess