eukaryotic cell: Internal structers

Nucleus:control center

seperated by the cytoplasm by an external boundary called a nuclear envelope. The envelope is composed of two parallel membanes seperatedd by a narrow space,and it is perforated with small,regularly spaced openings, or pores, formed at sites where he two membranes unite.

Endoplasmic Reticulum: Passageway in the cell

Endoplasmic Reculum:passageway in the cell-microscopic series of tunnels used in transport and storage. Has two kinds of reticulum, rough endosplasmic reticulum (RER) and Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER starts from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope and extends in a continous network through the cytoplasm, even all the way out to the cell membrane. Allowing the spaces in the RER called cisternae, to transport materials from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and ultimately to the cell's exterior.

Golgi Apparatus: Packing Machine

Also called the Golgi complex or Golgi body is the site in the cell in which proteins are modified and the sent to their final destinations. It's a discrete organelle consisting of a stack of several flattened, disc-shaped sacs, or cisternae. These sacks have outer limiting membranes and cavities like those of the endoplasmic reticulum, but they do not form a continuous network.

Nucleus, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and Golgi Apparatus: Natures's Assembly Line

a keeper of the genetic code, the nucleus ultimately governs and regulates all cell activities. But because the nucleus remains fixed in a specific cellular site, it must direct these activities through a structural and chemical network. The network includes ribosomes which originate in the nucleus, and rough endoplasmic reticulum, which is continuously connected with the nuclear envelope , as well as the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus.

Mitochondria: Energy Generators of the cell

supplies the nucleus with an abundant amount the constant energy. appears round or elongated particles scattered throughout the cytoplasm.A single mitochondria appear as smoth, continous outer membrane.

Chloroplasts: Photosynthesis Machines

Found in the algae and plant cells that are capable of converting the energy of sunlight into chemical energy through photosynthesis. The photosynthetic role of chloroplast makes them all primary producers of organic nutrients upon which all other organisms (except a few) ultimatley depend on.

Ribisomes: Protein synthesizers

they are tiny particles that give a dotted appearance to the cytoplasm. Ribosomes are distributed throughout the cell: Some are scattered freely in the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton. Multiple are found arranged in short chains called polyribosomes.

The cytoskeleton: Support Network

Cytoplasm of a eukayotic cell is crisscrossed by a flexible framework of molecules called the cytoskeleton . The framework appears to have several functions, such as anchoring organelles , moving RNA and vesicles, and permitting shape changes and momvoment in some cells.

Survey of Eukarotic Microorganisms

This section contains a general survey of the principal eukaryotic microorganisms such as: Fungi, alge, Protozoa, and parastic worms while also introducing ekements of their structure , life history, classification, identification , and importance.