Canada in the Future

What will Canada be like in 2060? By Akshaya S.

The Future

The Canada of tomorrow will essentially remain the same with respect to its core Canadian values such as freedom, respect for cultural differences and a commitment to social justice. But we could expect major transformation in our economy, demographics approach towards first nations. With a strong population growth mainly coming from skilled immigrants our economy would grow. We would lead in science, technology, space, health care and in other fields. We will continue to remain a multicultural country.

This Smore:

In this smore you will be reading about immigration, the demographics and the First Nations, Métis and the Inuit in 2060

Immigration

Immigration is the act of coming to a country of which one is not a native, usually for permanent residency. Canada accepts three different types of immigrants (i) Economic immigrants, (ii) Family immigrants and (iii) Refugees. For the past decade Canada has accepted on average 250,000 immigrants per year.

Currently

Canada is a very multicultural society with immigrants coming from all around the world. We accept about 250,000 immigrants every year. China, India and the Philippines are the top three countries where people emigrate from. Canada needs immigrants to fill jobs that are in high demand and to strengthen the economy. There are three main types of immigrants which Canada accepts; first, economic immigrants (skilled workers & business/entrepreneurs) who are chosen based on their education and skill set. Second; family immigrants who are the family members of people already living in Canada and are allowed to migrate to Canada if they are dependent on someone already living here. Lastly; the refugees who are immigrants who are forced to leave their country in fear of persecution, war or other reasons. According to statics, in 2011, the foreign born was about 20.6% of Canada’s total population. Canada had times of high immigration (1903-1913, the Great Expansion of Western Canada) and times of low immigration (1931-1945, the Depression) but the trend of immigration is increasing and will only continue. Immigration is a very important thing to Canada, as it will be in the future.

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The Future

Immigration in the future is most likely to increase due to the current system being one of the best in the world. Canada still needs immigrants to fill jobs that are in high demand. The number of immigrants brought in will most likely to increase by a tiny percent each year. We currently bring in about 250,000 which is approx. 0.8% of Canada’s population and the government wants to increase the immigrant intake to about 1% of the total population. The 2013 level plans indicate that they want to bring in about 62% economic immigrants, 27% family immigrants and 11% refugees. I believe that the total number of immigrants taken in all categories (economic, family, refugee) in 2060 will stay at similar to today’s numbers and similar to the 2013 level plans. Today, Canada has more people over the age of 65 than under the age of 15; by 2060, the over 65 is expected to significantly increase and depend more on the smaller group of working age people (the today under 15) to support health care and the pension system. With the growth in aged population, there will be the need for immigrants to come to Canada to live, work and support the needs of the aged seniors. Push factors that encourage people to leave their country will probably stay the same because; poverty will always remain an issue, war, bad healthcare and natural disasters. Pull factors that encourage people to want to immigrate to Canada will also stay the same; universal healthcare, safety and better lifestyles. Intervening obstacles such as will also stay the same in the future such as language issues, leaving family, cost and etc. Most of Canada’s immigrants will continue to come from Asia and Africa and we could few more immigrants from Europe especially from countries facing economic hard shifts (for example, Greece today). Most immigrants will chose to move similar provinces as they do today (Ontario and British Columbia) because of the already there ethnic enclaves, the warmer weather and many other reasons. Immigration by 2060 will continue to be one of the key factors that will drive this country forward as it does today.

Demography

Demography is the study of statistics such as births, deaths and (etc.) which illustrate the changing structure of human populations, portrayed by the Demographic Transition Model.

Currently

Canada is currently in stage four of the Demographic Transition Model (a model that shows the transition between birth rates, death rates and the natural increase rate). Stage four is when the birth rate is low and the death rate is also low, but the population keeps increasing.According to Stat Canada, there were 388,729 births in the year of 2014/2015 and the birth rate was 11/1000 this year which is a low birth rate. The death rate was 7/1000 for 2014/2015, which is a low death rate. The birth rate is low because of good family planning, good health and women working which leads to late marriages. The death rate is low due to good living conditions, health care and a reliable food supply. There are many seniors due to the baby boomers (children born between the years of 1946-1964) who are now a part of the aging population in Canada today.

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The Future

In the future, I believe that Canada will still be in stage four of the Demographic Transition Model. Canada will have a high death rate because of the increased seniors mainly because of the baby boomers. The birth rate will also remain low as many people prefer to have 2 or fewer kids keeping birth rate relatively the same. As many immigrants are forecasted to come to Canada, who will want to have children, the birth rate can be excepted to stay in the same range as today. It is unlikely for Canada to move into stage five of the demographic transition model (when the birth rate is lower than the death rate, resulting in the population to decrease), because even with lower birth and death rates, the population growth will continue due to the number of immigrants being brought every year which is unlikely decrease barring a major government decision.

The First Nation, Métis and Inuit

First Nations are Aboriginal people who don't identify as Métis or Inuit and live on reserves. The Métis people are people of mixed European and Native ancestry. The Inuit are aboriginals who reside in the Arctic.

Currently

In 2011, about 4.3% of Canada’s total population (1.4 million) identified as Aboriginal, about 1.4% identified as Métis (451 thousand) and about 0.2% identified as Inuit (59 thousand). The FNMI were the first people to live in the country, and didn’t get what they deserved in many situations. They lived in peace with each other, strengthening other camps by trading. For example the Natives who lived near today’s Mississauga area, traded near the Credit River, they traded skin, fur, hunting materials, anything another traded needed and someone could provide. If one person could not afford something, groups of natives pitched in bringing whatever they could to help. This deed of selflessness gave them the name the Good Credit Indians, which later influenced the name of the river. First Nations, Métis and the Inuit went through many tragedies. One being the Indian Act, today “status” Indians are registered under the Indian Act, which today has undergone changes, but still has its problems. Even today many FNMI live in bad conditions; they lack proper drinking water, proper housing and some also don’t have electricity in their homes. The government is slowly working on these issues.

The Future

Around 1948, South Africa created a system that enforced separation of different racial groups, and this was called the Apartheid Act. The Apartheid Act ended in1994 and there are still many wounds that cut deep for South Africans. Some people view that the Apartheid Act and the Indian act had similarities and some viewed it was not. Although the Indian Act still exists, I believe by 2060 it would be on its way to being abolished or already abolished. There are a few positives from this but negatives far outweigh the positive. Nevertheless, I consider the Indian act is still a way of discrimination a view a majority of natives share. Living conditions for FNMI will drastically improve over in parallel to comforts the people in the rest of the Canada enjoy, including all the basic necessities (clean drinking water, electricity, etc.) as well. The education will improve with FNMI having proper schools, proper buildings and good teachers. The FNMI will also have their respected land. They will also have all the rights as everyone else in Canada, no matter what they are. By 2060, the FNMI people will receive all the respect and rights they deserve.

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Bibliography

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Kristy Kirkup. "Officials to Evacuate Kashechewan First Nation Kids Due to Rashes, Open Sores." Toronto Sun. The Canadian Press, 21 Mar. 2016. Web. 22 Mar. 2016. <http://www.torontosun.com/2016/03/21/officials-to-evacuate-kashechewan-first-nation-kids-due-to-rashes-open-sores>.


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