The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.[1]:40.

Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32


Embargo Act of 1807

Of the many factors that led to the Industrial Revolution, two of the biggest and most significant were the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. President Thomas Jefferson set the Embargo Act of 1807 during the Napoleonic Wars. During the Napoleonic Wars, Britain's navy had seized Americans and their cargo to help with their war. In the Chesapeake area, Britain's navy opened fire when they weren't allowed to search one of America's ships. At the time, America was neutral. Despite protests, Britain continued. Later on, they resorted to impressment, forcing American sailors into their army. Thomas Jefferson issued the Embargo of 1807 as a general embargo, restricting trade with all foreign countries, particularly Britain and France. He had hoped that this embargo would devastate Britain and France's economies because they would not receive American goods anymore. He had hoped this would persuade them to respect America's neutrality and stop impressment.

War of 1812

Many factors led to the War of 1812:

  • Troubles with Native Americans
  • War Hawks
  • British aid to Native Americans
  • Impressment
  • Foreign nations did not respect America


What effects did a revolution as big as this leave behind? How did it change the lives of the people living in the United States?

One of the most significant results of the Industrial Revolution was the emergence of the middle class. As goods became cheaper because of the cheaper and more efficient production of goods, people could buy more of the good. They could buy everything they needed, and would have some money left over. The middle class was made up of managers, clerks, accountants, retailers, and anyone with a decent job at the time. The middle class had enough money to spend on leisure goods, rather than only buying what they needed to live.

Imperialism in Africa

Between 1450 and 1750 Europeans traded with Africa, but they set up very few colonies. By 1850, only a few colonies existed along African coastlines, such as Algeria (French), the Cape Colony (Great Britain,) and Angola (Portugal). Instead, free African states continued, and after the end of the slave trade in the early 1800s, a lively exchange took place between Europeans and African states, such as the Sokoto Caliphate in western Africa and Egypt and Ethiopia in northeast Africa. They traded manufactured goods for gold, ivory, palm oil (a substance used in soap, candles, and lubricants). Under the leadership of Muhammad Ali¸ and his grandson Ismail¸ Egypt grew to be the strongest Muslim state of the 19th century, producing cotton for export and employing western technology and business methods. They benefited from the American Civil War, when cotton shipments from the southern U.S. were cut off, but the Egyptian cotton market collapsed after American shipments resumed after the Civil War was over.

In the latter half of the 19th century, dramatic changes occurred, as Europeans began to explore Africa's interior, and by 1914, virtually the entire continent was colonized by one or the other of the competing European countries. European imperialists built on the information provided by adventurers and missionaries, especially the famous Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Stanley. Livingstone, a Scottish missionary, went to Africa in the 1840s and spent three decades exploring the interior of Africa and setting up missionary outposts all the way from central Africa to the Cape Colony on the southern tip. When people in Britain lost contact with Livingstone, journalist Henry Stanley became a news sensation when he traveled to Africa and found Livingstone. The two sparked interest in Africa and others followed, including the imperialists.

Africa - States of independence - The Scramble for Africa

Causes of Imperialism in Africa

It would be impossible to identify one concrete answer to the question, "Why the Scramble?" In the past century, numerous prominent thinkers have formulated opinions, hoping to conjure up a satisfactory response to the age-old query: economist John A. Hobson said that, "In most parts of the world a purely or distinctively commercial motive and conduct have furnished the nucleus out of which Imperialism has grown... other interests, political and religious, enter in more largely," (Hobson 20). Acclaimed sociologist Joseph A. Schumpter noted in his 1918 work The Sociology of Imperialism that, "Imperialism is an atavism... of social structure and an atavism of emotional habits." As one regards the "Scramble for Africa," strategy, politics, economics, superiority, nationalism, and religion were all important motivations that engendered European imperialism in 19th century Africa.

Archduke Ferdinand

Under the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Austria-Hungary received the mandate to occupy and administer the Ottoman Vilayet of Bosnia while the Ottoman Empire retained official sovereignty. Under this same treaty, the Great Powers (Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, the Ottoman Empire, and Russian Empire) gave official recognition to the Principality of Serbia as a fully sovereign state, which four years later transformed into a kingdom under Prince Milan IV Obrenović who thus became King Milan I of Serbia. Serbia's monarchs, at the time from the royal House of Obrenović that maintained close relations with Austria-Hungary, were content to reign within the borders set by the treaty.[1]

This changed in May 1903, when Serbian military officers led by Dragutin Dimitrijević stormed the Serbian Royal Palace. After a fierce battle in the dark, the attackers captured General Laza Petrović, head of the Palace Guard, and forced him to reveal the hiding place of King Alexander I Obrenović and his wife Queen Draga. The King and Queen opened the door from their hiding place. The King was shot thirty times; the Queen eighteen. MacKenzie writes that "the royal corpses were then stripped and brutally sabred."[2] The attackers threw the corpses of King Alexander and Queen Draga out of a palace window, ending any threat that loyalists would mount a counterattack."[3] General Petrović was then killed too (Vojislav Tankosić organized the murders of Queen Draga's brothers;[4] Dimitrijević and Tankosić in 1913–1914 figure prominently in the plot to assassinate Franz Ferdinand).[context?] The conspirators installed Peter I of the House of Karađorđević as the new king.[4]

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The Road to War (The End of an Empire) | Full Documentary | HDTV 2014 720p

technology of world war 1

World War I was one of the defining events of the 20th century. From 1914 to 1918 conflict raged in much of the world and involved most of Europe, the United States, and much of the Middle East. In terms of technological history, World War I is significant because it marked the debut of many new types of weapons and was the first major war to “benefit” from technological advances in radio, electrical power, and other technologies.

World War I grew out of a variety of factors that had been building up throughout Europe in the preceding decades. During the later 1800s many European countries experienced a rise in nationalism. Nationalism, combined with growing industrial capabilities, led to military buildups and an increasingly tense political situation throughout the continent. Nations were increasingly nervous about what their neighbors might be planning. In response to this tension, England, France, and Russia (Italy would join in 1915 after the war was underway) formed the “Triple Entente” and aligned against Germany and Austria-Hungary. This was one of numerous alliances that divided Europe and made world war virtually impossible to avoid if one nation took action against another.

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Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future and the development of humanity quite apart from political considerations of the moment, believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace. It thus repudiates the doctrine of Pacifism -- born of a renunciation of the struggle and an act of cowardice in the face of sacrifice. War alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have courage to meet it. All other trials are substitutes, which never really put men into the position where they have to make the great decision -- the alternative of life or death....

...The Fascist accepts life and loves it, knowing nothing of and despising suicide: he rather conceives of life as duty and struggle and conquest, but above all for others -- those who are at hand and those who are far distant, contemporaries, and those who will come after...

What Is Fascism?

appeasement causes

With Austria in his grasp, Hitler turned towards the ethnically German Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. Since its formation at the end of World War I, Czechoslovakia had been wary of possible German advances. To counter this, they had built an elaborate system of fortifications throughout the mountains of the Sudetenland to block any incursion and formed military alliances with France and the Soviet Union.
Nazi Aggression and Appeasement

holocaust causes

The Holocaust is one of the greatest atrocities in history, and today it's hard to look at it and understand just what could lead so many German people to participate in such blind hatred of their fellow man. During the Holocaust, a huge percentage of the German population – 8.5 million – were members of the Nazi party. Soldiers and officers worked to round up more than six millions Jews as well as millions of other people they deemed undesirable, and then murder them outright. Trying to understand the causes of the Holocaust is difficult, primarily since there is really no single cause or trigger that can be pinpointed. Instead, many different factors have to be considered.

holocaust effect

The Holocaust destroyed society. This devastating Genocide killed millions of people, left thousands in physical or mental pain, and affected todays society in such a negative way. In total about eleven million people were killed unfairly and those who luckily got away will be traumatized for the rest of their lives having to face todays society. These survivors still face the long term affects from the holocaust. “Like an atom bomb that disperses its radioactive fallout in distant places, often a long time after the actual explosion, the Holocaust continues to contaminate everyone who was exposed to it in one way or another.” As survivors and children began aging the terrifying flashbacks return to their minds and insecurities begin control their physiologic mind. Thus it seems that Elie Wiesel (1978) was correct in stating that “time does not heal all wounds; there are those that remain painfully open.
Holocaust documentary
Cold War in 9 Minutes

september 11 terror attacks causes

September 11, 2001. Live TV Coverage Montage