Key Period 8


Executive Order 9981

During the mid twentieth century, Harry Truman sought to eliminate segregation in the military. This led him to enact Executive Order 9981, which stated that there should be absolutely no discrimination in the armed forces that had to do with race, skin color, or origin. Of course, there was resistance, but this was a step closer to equality for all. (Page 875).

Massive Retaliation and The Space Race

During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and America had major tension and wanted to outcompete each other. They felt that technology and space exploration was the way to outperform one another towards superiority. The soviets beat the United States by landing the infamous Sputnik satellite into space in 1957. The United States retaliated by proposing to land a man on the moon, and soon achieved this goal in 1969. (Page 832).
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OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

During the 1970s, the United States faced a serious oil crisis. After much conflict about the profit made from the sale of oil, Middle Eastern countries formed the OPEC to control their prices. This severely affected the US and raised gasoline prices. Reduced speed limits were enforced to conserve oil and more fuel efficient cars were sold. (Page 938).
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Griswold v. Connecticut

During the 1960s, there was a common culture of getting married early. In fact, more than half of those who married in the year 1963, were under the age of 21. In 1965, the Supreme Court ruled that contraception was a "privacy" right for women. This became known as the Griswold v. Connecticut decision. (Page 855).

Miranda v. Arizona

In the mid-twentieth century, a rights revolution took place in the Supreme Courts. The court increasingly agreed to hear human rights and civil liberties cases. One of these cases happened to be the Miranda v. Arizona case, which essentially stated that police officers had to inform arrestees of their rights (the right to remain silent). (Page 930).

Great Society

The Great Society was President Lyndon B. Johnson's program that included civil rights legislation, antipoverty programs, government subsidy of medical care, federal aid to education, consumer protection, and aid to the arts and humanities (pg. 904).

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Medicare was a health plan passed in 1965 for the elderly. It was funded by a large surcharge on Social Security payroll taxes (pg. 906).
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Medicaid was a health plan for the poor passed in 1965. This was paid for by the general tax revenues and administered by the states (pg. 906).

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination of race, religion, gender, and national origin in employment. In another section, equal access to public accommodations and schools was guaranteed. The law also granted the U.S. attorney general with new enforcement power and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to implement the prohibition against discrimination in jobs (pg. 890).

Change in Civil Rights tactics post 1965

The Black Panthers used a strategy called "picking up the gun" which reflected the sentiments of many inner-city blacks. Many Black Panther riots, or "rebellions" broke out during the last half of the decade. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964, more violence was used, especially with the Black Panthers and people like Malcolm X. The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) held more protests and rejected the Cold War foreign policy

The Feminine Mystique

Written by Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963) reveals the unknown problem: women ask themselves if all there is to life is just have kids, take care of them, and keep themselves busy at home, not having a career. This was a problem because women felt that their lives were unfulfilled and needed to do something else with them. (8.5 Guided Lecture Notes)

Rachel Carson

Rachel Carson was a marine biologist and conservationist who wrote the book Silent Spring. Carson contributed to advancing the global environment movement. There were many people like Carson who made others aware of the consequences in our environment during the early 1960's.

1950's Challenges to Culture

1965 Immigrant Acts

It abandoned the Quota System in which placed a limit on the number of immigrants from each country and mainly favoring northern Europeans. This act allowed for more non- European immigration in the United States(Page number 906-907).

In the picture below, President Lyndon Johnson signing the Immigrant Acts of 1965 at the foot of the Statue of Liberty on October 3, 1965

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Stonewall Riots

Police raided the Stonewall Bar in New York's Greenwich Village, during the year 1969, where a gather was held for homosexuals. The rioting lasted for five days. This riot was important because it was the first time that homosexual fought back and the beginning of the gay pride movement across the country(Page number 925-926).

In the picture below, a gay man getting arrested and surrounded by many officers during the riot.

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Rise of the Conservative Movement:


On June 17, 1972, there were five men carrying wiretaping equipment at the Washington's Watergate complex. We later find out that the five men were part of Nixon's re-election crew in which they are called the CREEP. Nixon's crew helped him rigged his campaign for presidency. Nixon was accused of this illegal action and ended up taking the case to court. He tried to use his presidency to cover up his act but failed to do so. Impeachment proceedings were started but Nixon resigned from his office in August of 1974(Page number 947-948)

The picture below shows a news paper article from The New York Times on Nixon's resignations.

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Bakke V. University of California

Overturned quotas for minority applicants, although race could be a factor in accepting an individual. It is a case between Allan Bakke and the University of California, Davis that Bakke a white applicant was turned down rather than a minority who had a significantly lower score than him which lead to a reverse discrimination(Page number 950-951).

In the picture below, is a march that shows education should be equal for those who have been excluded such as women and minority.

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Phyllis Schlafly

The Equal Rights Amendment was an amendment proposed by the government that would give equal rights to anyone regardless of race and ex. Phyllis Schlafly opposed this idea because she thought that if women were given equal rights then they would have to be drafted in the war, there would be unisex bathrooms, and the same sex will be legalized, none of which were correct. She believed that "the home life" would be disrupted(Page number 952-953).

The picture below shows Phyllis Schlafly in a press conference which she is trying to stop the Equal Rights Amendments A.K.A the Stop ERA.

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