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Mining

Surface-a method of mining used to extract minerals and metals which are near the surface of the Earth.

Sub-Surface
-digging of tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits.

Surface Mining

Strip- is the practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock. Picture that looks like a bowl.
Open Pit- refers to a method of extracting rocks or minerals from the earth through their removal from an open pit or borrow. Picture that is a circular bowl.
Mountain top Removal- is a form of coal mining that uses explosives to blast "overburden" off the top of some mountains. Picture that looks like a plateau.
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Fracking

is the process of extracting natural gas from shale rock layers deep within the earth.
Hydraulic Fracturing in Modern Drilling Operations

Sub-Surface

Slope-is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal or ore. A sloping access shaft travels downwards towards desired material. Picture with the pipe sticking out of the ground.
Drift-is a process of accessing precious geological material, like coal, by cutting into the side of the earth, rather than tunneling directly downwards. Picture that looks like an underground tunnel.
Shaft-is a type of mining process used to vertically gain access to an underground mining facility. Picture of people on a roller coaster.
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Effects

Mining- is important because minerals are major sources of energy as well as materials such as fertilizers and steel.

Fracking- Contamination of groundwater, Methane pollution and its impact on climate change, Air pollution impacts, Exposure to toxic chemicals, Blowouts due to gas explosion.