Canada and China ：2016 VS. 2040
The one child policy, a part of the family planning policy, was a population control policy of China which was introduced between 1978 and 1980 and began to be formally phased out in 2015.The policy allowed many exceptions and ethnic minorities were exempt. In 2007, 36% of China's population was subject to a strict one-child restriction.An additional 53% were allowed to have a second child if the first child was a girl.
The policy was enforced at the provincial level through fines that were imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. "Population and Family Planning Commissions" exist at every level of government to raise awareness and carry out registration and inspection work.
The policy was introduced in 1978 and enacted/implemented as a temporary measure on September 18, 1980 to curb a then-surging population and limit the demands for water and other resources as well as to alleviate social, economic and environmental problems in China. Demographers are not clear how much reduction happened solely because of the policy.
The Chinese government says that 400 million births were prevented although the validity of this claim is in doubt. A report in Newsweek, for example, questions the cause/effect claimed by China: "...some demographers claim China’s population growth would have flattened out even without it—the draconian rule left emotional, social and economic scars the country and its citizens will be dealing with for years." On the other hand, the approval rating of the policy in Pew data for 2008 was 76%.
A 2008 survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center reported that 76% of the Chinese population supported the policy; however, it is controversial outside China for many reasons, including accusations of human rights abuses in the implementation of the policy, as well as concerns about negative social consequences.
On 29 October 2015, Xinhua, China's state news agency, reported a change in the existing law to a two-child policy, citing a statement from the Communist Party of China, and the new law is effective from 1 January, 2016 after it got passed in the standing committee of the National People's Congress on 27 December, 2015.
What the Niagara Health System does show is that, overwhelmingly, most recent immigrants are from Asia, including the Middle East, but to a lesser degree than in the early part of the decade. Between 2006 and 2011, 56.9 per cent of immigrants were Asian, compared with the 60 per cent of the immigrants that came between 2001 and 2005.
The Philippines was the top source country for recent immigrants, with 13 per cent, according to the National Household Survey — although a footnote warns that the survey data “is not in line” with data collected by Citizenship and Immigration Canada. China and India were second and third as source countries.
The decline in the share of Asian immigration was offset by growth in newcomers from Africa in particular, and also Caribbean countries and Central and South America.
As in the past, newcomers are settling in Canada’s biggest cities and are generally younger than the established population. Newcomers have a median age of 31.7 years, compared to the Canadian-born population median age of 37.3.
Of Canada’s 6.8 million immigrants, 91 per cent of them live in metropolitan areas, and 63.4 per cent live in the Toronto, Montreal or Vancouver areas.