Eisenhower

Paul Zaidins

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Elections

Election of 1952

  • Republican Dwight D Eisenhower versus Democrat Adlai E Stevenson
  • Richard M Nixon declared Eisenhower's Vice President for anti-communist party members
  • "I Like Ike" buttons
  • Supreme Allied Commander of WWII
  • President of Columbia
  • Nixon was the attack dog
  • Eisenhower was dignified
  • Nixon tarnished by "slush fund" scandal and saved by his Checkers Speech
  • Eisenhower did brief pre-recorded television "Questions and Answers"
  • Eisenhower pledged to end Korean War
  • Eisenhower won by a large margin and made large party gains in the South


Election of 1956

  • Republican Dwight D Eisenhower versus Democrat Adlai E Stevenson
  • Seen favorably due to peace and prosperity
  • Had undergone recent major surgery, but was still fit
  • Won by an even larger margin, but lost House and Senate majorities

Cold War

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  • Worsened tensions with USSR
  • Ended Korean War with stalemate
  • Built up nuclear arsenal
  • Sponsored development of H-Bomb
  • Called for open skies, but was rebuffed
  • Let Hungarian Revolution fail
  • NATO and the Warsaw Pact formed in opposition of each other

Joseph McCarthy

  • Red Hunter (Strong Anti-Communist)
  • Senator from Wisconsin
  • "Tailgunner Joe"
  • Senator Joseph McCarthy accused Secretary of State Dean Anderson of employing 205 in February 1950
  • Later failed to give any solid evidence after falling back to there only being 57 communists
  • Accused Democrats of sheltering communists
  • Accused General George Marshall of committing to a communist conspiracy
  • Purged State Department of Asian specialists
  • Eventually discredited by his own attack against the army
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Desgregation

  • Two-Thirds of African Americans still lived in South
  • Jim Crow Laws in the South enforced segregration
  • Vigilante lynch mobs common
  • Explored by An American Dilemma by Gunnar Myrdal
  • NAACP devoted to improving lives of colored people
  • 1944- white primaries ruled unconstitutional
  • Thurgood Marshall made separated profession schools illegal in Sweatt v Painter
  • Brown v Board of Education of Topeka forced degradation of public schools
  • Southern representatives and locals would hold of desegregation for over 10 years
  • Ike forced to send armed forced to protect black students in Arkansas during the Little Rock Crisis after the governor attempted to gather armed forces in opposition
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957 passed, but was very watered down
  • The Montgomery Bus system was also boycotted into desegregation after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man
  • White flight began as whites fled the cities, which would become predominately black in many areas

Republicanism

  • Dynamic conservatism
  • Economic conservative, social liberal
  • Balanced budget
  • Slowed military growth
  • Sponsored competitor to TVA
  • Secretary condemned Salk's Polio vaccine
  • Operation Wetback fought illegal immigration
  • Attempted to terminate Indian tribes
  • Interstate Highway Act
  • Highest deficit in peacetime despite promises to balance the budget

Vietnam

  • Response to French imperialism
  • Communist Ho Chi Minh asked for independence
  • America sponsored France due tof ear of communism
  • French forced to surrender after Dienbienphu
  • South Vietnam became US sponsored and North communist
  • US would continue to sponsor South Vietnam despite totalitarian government

Space Race

  • Soviet rocketry alarmed America with first satellite in 1957 named Sputnik I
  • Gave credence to ICBMs
  • NASA founded in response
  • Failed Vanguard missile
  • NDEA created to sponsor science and industry in education