Mining & Fracking

Jack Jelenick

MINING

There are two major types of mining; surface and subsurface.

You can distiguinish between these two through several factors that apply to each of them but you first most note that both are mining practices which is the bringing up of rocks and mineral from earths crust.

Surface Mining

Surface Mining is sort of "scratching the surface" and gathering the minerals. This method is very messy and harmful to the ecosystems around but is less expensive, easier, and safer than subsurface mining.

Subsurface Mining

Subsurface Mining is the digging into earth to retrieve the minerals and rocks. This method is very difficult, expensive and dangerous but the surrounding ecosystems are barely harmed (compared to the damage of surface mining.)

FRACKING

What is Fracking?

Fracking is the process of taking the natural gases out of shale rock that is layered deep within earth.

How is Fracking done?

Fracking is where you drill down into the earth, then injecting a very high pressure water based mixture full of water, sands, and different chemicals. This allows the gas within the rock to flow to top into a tank.
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What are the Environmental Impacts of Fracking?

-Methane and other toxic leak out and contaminate surround groundwater.

-Respiratory, sensory, and neurological damage can be side effects of the contaminated groundwater because neighboring cities and wells use that water.

-Only 30 to 50 percent of the fluids used are returned, the rest leaks into the ground where it can not be dissolved into the soil because it's biodegradable.

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