Cheif Justice John Marshall
Marbury Vs. Madison
The Marbury Vs. Madison case was in 1803, and this established the judicial review. The main purpose of this case was because
Marbury sued Jefferson's Secretary of State, James Madison, and asked the Supreme Court of the United States to issue a court order requiring that Madison deliver his papers. This case is important, because after the judicial review things got easier.
McCulloch Vs. Maryland
The McCulloch VS. Maryland case was in 1819, and it established Federalism & Doctrine of Implied powers. The reason this case happened was because Maryland tried closing down the Baltimore branch of the national bank by passing a law that forced all banks that were created outside of the state pay a $15,000 tax each year. James McCulloch, who worked at the Baltimore Branch, refused to pay the tax. This case was important, because it explains the changing nature of American federalism.
Fletcher Vs. Peck
The Fletcher Vs. Peck, in 1810, was a case in which Robert Fletcher (P) purchased 15,000 acres from John Peck (D) in 1803 for $3,000. Peck, in spite of the 1796 statute, had placed a covenant in the deed that stated that the title to the land had not been constitutionally impaired by any subsequent act of the state of Georgia. Fletcher sued Peck to establish the constitutionality of the 1796 act; either the act was constitutional and the contract was void, or the act was unconstitutional and Fletcher had clear title to the land. This case is important becuase the decision also helped create a growing precedent for the sanctity of legal contracts.
Martin Vs. Hunters
Martin Vs. Hunter Lessee case in 1816, was basically the state of Virginia granted the same tract of land to the Appellee, Hunter, that a federal treaty give to the Appellant, Martin. The Supreme Court of the United States declared that Appellant was so entitled, but the Virginia Court of Appeals, to which the case was remanded, refused to carryout the Supreme Court’s judgment. This case is important because, it established federalism also.
Cohens Vs. Virginia
The Cohen Vs. Virginia case was in 1819. The main issue in the case was the preliminary issue of whether the Supreme Court had jurisdiction to hear an appeal in a criminal case decided by the courts of the state of Virginia. It was argued by Virginia that the Constitution does not give the Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction over criminal judgments by the state courts. Virginia also argued that the Constitution does not give the Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction over cases in which a state is a party. In effect, Virginia argued that its decision was final and unreviewable by the federal courts, even though the decision involved the interpretation and application of an act of Congress. This case established the Supremacy Clause.
Dartmouth College VS. Woodward
The Dartmouth College Vs. Woodward in 1819, was the legislature of New Hampshire attempted to alter Dartmouth's charter in order to reinstate the College's deposed president, placing the ability to appoint positions in the hands of the governor, adding new members to the board of trustees, and creating a state board of visitors with veto power over trustee decisions. But, Daniel Webster argued the college's case against William H. Woodward. Which became the big case. This established the Economic rights.