Destanee Hunsucker /// December 14, 2015
Andrew Johnson's Plan for Reconstruction
Johnson put his plan into operation in 1865. The Southern states held conventions that repealed their ordinances of secession, abolished slavery, and repudiated Confederate states, besides South Carolina. They eventually ratified the 13th Amendment which guaranteed freedom for African Americans. By the end of 1865 every old Confederate state except for Texas reestablished a civil government.
-What it was?
This was established in 1865 by Congress. This was formed to help former slaves and poor whites in the South after the Civil War. Over 4 million slaves were freed after the Civil War, which resulted in the South's plantations left in ruins and in bad condition. This also provided food, shelter, medical aid, schooling and legal assistance . It returned land that was damaged from result of the war from the South for slaves to settle.
As a response to this Johnson vetoed this for several different reasons.
- Johnson was opposed to the use of the military during peacetime
- He felt the Bill was a federal encroachment into state matters.
- Felt this was class legislation for a particular segment of society that would keep the former slaves from being self-sustaining and had not been done for struggling whites.
- Johnson didn't feel that Congress should be making thee decisions for unrepresented states.
Civil Rights Act 1866
This was a bill presented by Senate Judiciary Chairman Lyman Trumball of Illinois. This bill stated that "all persons born in the United Sates," with the exception of American Indians, were "hereby declared to be citizens the "full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of person and property." Because Radical Republicans believed the federal government had a role in shaping multicultural society in the postwar South, it seemed like the smartest idea to consider after the ratification of the 13th Amendment.
Johnson vetoed this bill but the the House of Representatives overrode this on April 9, 1866.
Black codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866. They had the intent to restrict African American's freedom, and for them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt. The purpose of this was to maintain control of the system of white supremacy that made slavery possible.
Some examples were these were the Civil Rights, Labor Contracts and Vagrancy.
*Civil Rights- They declared all black people have the right to own and dispose of property, make contracts, enjoy fruits of labor, sue and be sued, and receive protection under the law.
*Labor Contracts- Contracts for blacks that agreed to working for white masters. This contract included the wages and term of service. Black servants had to live on the white mans property, remain quiet and orderly and work from sun up to sundown except for Sundays, and couldn't leave the property or have visitors without the white man's permission.
*Vagrancy- This code pressure freedmen to sign labor contracts and provided that vagrants could be arrested and imprisoned at hard labor. But the county sheriff could hire out black vagrants to white employer to work off their punishment.