The Second New Deal

By: Sabrina Ficara and Meg Kirkland

Coughlin, Townsend, and Long- They were three people who opposed the FDR. They attacked Roosevelt’s policies and big businesses. They were important because they were a threat to the FDR and would influence the public’s opinion.

Pension- It is money that is paid regularly to people after they retire. This helped the elderly people support themselves because they were no longer making money.

WPA (Works Progress Administration)- This program was created in order to help get America out of the Great Depression. It is important because it wanted to give more people jobs and help the economy.

Unemployment Insurance- This insurance would give some money to the people who had lost their jobs. This was the time during Great Depression, where many people had lost their jobs. They needed money and this act would give some to them, which helped them to support their families.

Labor Movement- During the battle of depression, worker unions grew larger in attempts to make working conditions and pay better.

Sit Down Strike- In 1937 workers at general motors in Flint, Michigan used a new technique in the labor movement known as a sit down strike. A sit down strike is when workers occupy the facility but refuse to do any work until the employers agreed to negotiate their demands. Finally, the Flint workers were granted their right to organize a Union.

Packing the Supreme Court- Many cases were brought to the supreme court, claiming the new deal was unconstitutional. FDR took action to prevent supreme court from undoing the New Deal. He had congress increase justices to 15 members and he would appoint the new 6, of course selecting those who would support the New Deal. He was accused of trying to “pack” the court. The issues ended when the supreme court ruled for the Wagner Act and the Social Security Act.

The second term- The election of 1936 was a decision if you supported FDR and the New Deal or not. To run against Roosevelt in the Republican party was Alfred M. Landon, but he was not well liked by either parties. FDR was not in support of big business like Landon was. received 61 percent of the popular vote, the biggest landslide in election history.

Roosevelt Recession- In 1937, the economy had nearly returned to its 1929 level. Roosevelt, thinking the recession was over, tried to reduce debt by cutting spending on relief and job programs. Immediately, the economy dropped. Four million people lost their jobs. This became known as the Roosevelt Recession and lasted until 1938.

The End of the New Deal- Because of the court packing and the Roosevelt Recession, FDR lost support in Congress. The New Deal ended. As the 1930s drew to a close, America had to focus their attention on foreign affairs.

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New Acts

John Lewis Wagner Act- John L. Lewis was a labor leader. In order to make labor power higher, he tried to unite all the workers in every industry in one union. His newly formed Union was called the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). The CIO had four million members including women and African Americans by 1938. The Wagner Act, after Senator Robert Wagner, or National Labor Relations Act guaranteed workers the right to form unions to bargain collectively with employers.

Fair labor standards Act- In 1938 Congress passed the Fair Labor Standards Act. This act banned child labor and set a minimum wage of 40 cents an hour. This act and the Wagner Act formed the foundation of our current labor rights.

Revenue Act- This act increased taxes on wealthy and big business owners. This was important because the money that went to the government through higher taxes would help the poorer people.

Social Security Act- This was an act that was created to help the elderly. Workers and employers would be taxed and the money would go to people when they retire. Money would also be given to people with disabilities and to children whose parents couldn’t support them.

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