Human rights

An issue of political geography.

What are Human Rights?

Human Rights- A right that is believed to belong justifiably to every person.

Rights that humans have by the fact of being human, not under the power of the government.

Gender Equality

Gender. The socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate for men and women.
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9) Sexual Subjection

Many countries criminalize adult, consensual sex outside of marriage. In Morocco, women are much more likely to be charged with having violated penal code prohibitions on sexual relations outside of marriage than men.

8) Citizenship

Most countries in the region with the exception of Iran, Tunisia, Israel and to a limited extent Egypt – have permitted only fathers to pass citizenship onto their children. Women married to non–nationals are denied this fundamental right.

7) Victims of violence

Womens unequal rights increase there long roll Bilicki to violence. In many countries in the region, no specific laws exist to penalize domestic violence. Domestic violence is generally considered to be a private matter outside of the state's jurisdiction. Battered women are told to go home if they attempt to file a complaint with the police. Spousal rape has not been criminalized; husbands have an absolute right to their wives bodies at all times. Several countries also contain provisions that authorize the police and judges to drop charges against a rapist if he agrees to marry his victim.

6) Right to travel

Traveling for women is really complicated in the Middle East. In many countries, you must have written permission from your husband to travel abroad, and can be prevented from doing so for any reason. In other countries the husband can file a complaint at the airport to forbid their wives from leaving the country. In Saudi Arabia, women must have written permission from their closest male relative to leave the country or travel on public transportation between different parts of the kingdom.

5) Forbidden from driving

In Saudi Arabia, women aren't allowed to drive, or even ride bikes, and men aren't allowed to drive women they're not closely related to. Girls who go to school on buses can only be drivin by mem, but the logical question is this: If no men are allowed to come in contact with schoolgirls, and women range allowed to drive, who will be driving the school buses. Women and men should be able to drive whenever, with whoever, wherever.

4) Clothing requirements

Lashkar-e-Jabar demanded that Muslim women in Kashmir wear burqas, head to toe garments that cover their clothes, or risk being attacked. Men threw acid on the women if they did not covering up in public. Women showing skin isn't harmful to men, so why make it harmful if you slip.

3) Right to divorce

Husbands can divorce their spouses easily, but wive's access to divorce is often extremely limited. Women cannot file for divorce on the basis of abuse without the testimony of an eye witness.

2) Access to education

Girls are often taken out of school when they hit puberty. This is having a negative impact on girls' education, because everyone should have the same amount of education time.

1) Custody rights & Marriage

In Bahrain, where family law is codified, judges have complete power to deny women custody of their children. Also, Men are allowed to date/ marry as many people he desires, while women can only marry one male.

Why focus on women?

" A host of studies suggest that putting earnings in women's hands is the intelligent thing to do to speed up DEVELOPMENT and the process of overcoming poverty." usually women reinvest a much higher portion in their families and communities than men, spreading wealth beyond themselves. This is most likely a reason why countries with higher gender equality tend to have lower poverty rates.
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Sharia Law

What is sharia law?

Sharia Law is the law of Islam. It covers public behavior, private behavior, and private beliefs. It is one of the most strict laws, especially against women. It was systemized between the 8th and 10th centuries in Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Mohammad. It is used all throughout the Middle East and is only used sometimes for cases in other countries. A majority of Muslims around the world want the Sharia Law to be implemented in their countries, but are indecisive about how it should be applied.
What Is Sharia Law?

Affects of the Sharia Law

  • A man can marry an infant girl and consummate the marriage when she is 9 years old
  • A man can beat his wife
  • A woman who was raped cannot testify against her rapist(s) in court
  • Women can not drive
  • A woman can have one husband, but a man may have four wives
  • Theft is punishable by the amputation of the right hand
  • Muslims who become non-Muslims are punishable by death
  • For someone to be convincted of adultery, there must be at least four witnesses
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Economic Gap

There is a growing economic gap in the Middle East. The money is going to the wealthy, leaving the poor even more uncomfortable. One of the main reasons for this is the uneven distribution of the resources. While some people get extremely wealthy and the others get poor. One example is Dubai and the recent oil, revenue, it's left some people people very wealthy (like the oil family) and the others still poor. There is no middle class. This makes the rich treat the poor treat the poor like scum.
Many of the oil producing countries are much wealthier than those that aren't. Many jobs are created and revenue is brought in from the oil. This creates a large gap between the two.
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Darfur is a region in western Sudan. It's home to about 6 million people from near by 100 tries. In 1989 general Bashir took over by military, and in a struggle for political control of the area, weapons pounded into Darfur. Conflicts increase between African farmers and many nomadic Arab tribes. Into 2003, two Darfuri rebel movements went against the Sudanese government complaining about the lack of protection from nomad. The government of Sudan unleashed Arab militias to attack hundred of villages throughout Darfur. 400 villages were completely destroyed in millions were forced to flee their home. Darfuris today continue to suffer and there are many ongoing problem. $2.7 million Darfuris remain in displaced camps and over 4.7 million rely on humanitarian aid.
How Bad Is The Darfur Genocide Now?

Class Structure

  • Middle East woman have been prohibited by government
  • Middle East has many authority on Individuals
  • Divided society into classes: the rich were content with their status but poor were not
  • Religion was used to perpetuate the rich's existence as a class
  • Economic hardship the poor faced was justified through religion and the possibility of a better afterlife
  • The way classes in the Middle East practice religion is highly illustrative Barakat labeled them "official religion " & "popular religion"
  • Economic hardship the poor faced was justified through religion & the possibility of a better afterlife

Class Structure Examples


  • An upper class of "nobles and notables"
  • Religion leaders and students of theology
  • merchants
  • agricultural landowners
  • master artisans and shopkeepers
as in many official class structure,the labores who made up the majority of the population,but owned no land and relied on wages , we're not even considered part of the structure. Iran continues to function as a theocracy, with religious leaders holding much of the power over day to day affairs.