Lauren H.~ Language Arts 8th Grade

~What we learned this year~

Chapter 1: Subject and Predicate, and Kinds of Sentences

  • Subject~ A subject tells whom or what the sentences is about.

Ex.The Kitten with the white paws is called boots.

  • Simple Subject~ Is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.

Ex.Pacing back and fourth in the cage was a hungry tiger

  • Simple predicate, or Verb,~ Is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.

Ex.These books Complete Sub./ Are available in the media center Comp. Pred

  • Compound subject~ Consists o two or more connected subjects that have the same verb

Ex.Keshia and Todd worked a jigsaw puzzle.

  • Compound Verb~ Consists of two or more verbs that have the same subject

Ex.The dog barked and growled at the stranger

  • Predicate~A predicate of a sentences tells something about the subject

Ex.Under a large bush sat the tiny rabbit

  • Sentence~A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a compresses a complete thought.

Ex.Have you ever seen a baby rabbit?

  • Sentence Fragment~ Is a word or word group that looks like a sentence but does not contain both a subject and a verb or does not express a complete thought

Ex.A butterfly with bright blue wings and long antennae

  • Declarative Sentence~ Makes a statement and ends with a period.

Ex.The cat ran out the door.

  • Imperative sentence~ gives a command or makes a request, Most imperative sentences end with a period.A strong command ends with an exclamation point.

Ex.Stop her!

  • Interrogative Sentence~ ask a question and ends with a question mark.

Ex.Was the game exciting?

Exclamatory sentence~ Shows excitement or string feeling and ends with an exclamation point.

Ex.What a sight the sunset is!

Chapter 2: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective

  • Noun~ A word or word group group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.

Ex.Town

  • Compound Noun~ Is made up of two or more words used together as a single noun.

Ex.Basketball

  • Common Noun~ Names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas.

Ex.poem

  • Proper Nouns~ Names a particular person, place, thing, or idea

Ex.Los Angeles

  • Concrete Noun~ Names a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses ( sight,HEaring, Taste, Touch, and smell

Ex.Teacher

  • Abstract Noun~ Names an idea, a feeling, a quality or characteristic.

Ex.Love

  • Collective Noun~ Is a word that names a group.

Ex.Herd

  • Pronoun~ Is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

Ex.When kelly saw the single, She pointed it out to sam

  • Personal Pronoun~ Refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person),or the spoken about (third person)

Ex.I, Me

  • Reflexive Pronoun~ refers to the subject and functions as a complement or an object of a preposition

Ex.Myslef

  • Intensive Pronoun~ emphasizes a noun o another pro noun

Ex.Herself

  • Demonstration Pronoun~ Points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea

Ex.That

  • Relative Pronoun~ introduces a subordinate clause

Ex.Which

  • Indefinite Pronoun~ refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.

Ex.Both

Adjective~ is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun

Ex.Stone House, Another one, Seven rings

  • Articles~ a,an and the
  • Indefinite articles~ they refer to a group.

Demonstrative Adjectives~this, that,these and those can be used both as adjectives and as pronouns. modify noun or pronoun

Ex.These

Proper Adjectives~ is formed from a proper noun and begins with a capital letter

Ex.Canadian citizen

Chapter 3: Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection

  • Verb~ Is a word used to express action or a state of being

Ex.Run

  • A helping verb helps the main verb express action or a state of being. Together, a main verb and at least one helping verb. ( also called an auxiliary verb) make up a verb phrase.
  • Action Verbs~ is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity

Ex.Laugh

  • Linking Verbs~ connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. The noun, pronoun, or adjective that is connected to the subject by a linking verb completes the meaning of the verb.

Ex.is

  • Transitive verb ~ is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing, or idea.

Ex.Held

  • Intransitive Verb~ expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object.

Ex.Played

  • Adverb~ is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb

Ex.They said the forest fire started Here

  • Adverbs modifying verbs ~ adverbs may come before or after the words they modify

Ex.Slowly the man crawled down

  • Adverbs or Adjective ~ many adverbs end in- ly. many of these adverbs are formed by adding ly to adjectives.

Ex.Adjective Bright = Adverb brightly

  • Adverbs modifying Adjectives

Ex.An Unusually faster started, Lauren won the race.

  • Adverbs modifying other Adverbs~

Ex.Our guest left Quite abruptly.

  • Preposition~ is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word.

Ex.Under

  • Preposition phrase~ is the object if the preposition, and modifiers

Ex.the tired tourists climbed onto the crowded bus.

  • Conjunction~is a word used to join words or groups of words
  • Coordinating conjunction~ join words or groups of words that are used in the same way.

Ex.and

Correlative conjunctions ~ are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way

Ex.both.....and

Interjection~ is a word used to express emotion

Ex.Oh!

Determining parts of speech~ The way a word is used in a sentence determines what part of speech it is.

Ex.Each was painted blue

Chapter 4: Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complemets

  • Direct object~ is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

Ex.Our history class built a model of the Alamo

  • Indirect Object~ is a noun, pronoun, or a word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects

Ex. Luke showed the class his collection of books

Objects of verbs~ direct objects and indirect objects complete the meaning of transitive verbs

  • Complement ~ is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb

Ex. Incomplete ~ Marlene- s brought-v

Complete ~ Marlene - s brought- v sandwiches - C

  • Subject complement~ is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a linking verb and that identifies or describes

Ex.Alice Eng is a dedicated teacher

  • Predicate Nominatives~ Is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it

Ex.My aunt's niece is she

  • Predicate Adjective~ is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject

Ex.This chili tastes Spicy

Chapter 5: Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phraese

Phrase~Is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contains both a verb and its subject

Ex.A message From the other members of the debate team

Prepositional phrase~ Includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

Ex.The car in front of us slid into an icy snowbank

Adjective phrase~ a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun

Ex.Mrs. O'Meara is the one on the left

Adverb Phrase~ a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb

Ex.The snow fell Throughout the day

  • Verbal~ is a word that is formed from a verb but is used as a noun and adjective or an adverb. There are three kinds of verbals the participle, the gerund and the infinitive
  • Participle~ is a verb form that can be used a an adjective

Ex.the smiling child waved

Present participles end in-ing

Most past participles end in -d or -ed. some past participles are irregularly formed

Participial phase~consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the particles has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective

Ex.after a while, we heard the duck quacking noisily at its own image

  • Gerund~ is a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun

Subject~ Skiing down the slope was fun

Predicate Nominative~ Dad's favorite pastime is fishing for trout and bass

  • Gerund phrase~ consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. the entire phrase is used as a noun

Ex.Having a part-time job may interfere with your schoolwork

  • Infinitive~ is a verb form that can be used as a noun,and adjective, or an adverb. most infinitives begin with to

Ex.To the celing fan took two hours

  • Infinitive phrase~consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. the entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb

Ex.the crowd grew quiet to hear the speaker

  • Appositive~is a noun or a pronoun placed besides another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it.

Ex.i choose one person,her, to organize the volunteers

  • Appositive phrase~ consists of an appositive and its modifiers

Ex.officer web,one of the security guards, caught the burglar

Chapter 6: Independent Clauses and Subordinate Clauses

  • Clause~ is a word group that contains a verb and its subject that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence

Ex.Writers gathered at the home of Gertrude Stein

  • Independent clause~ Expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Ex.The sun set an hour ago

  • Subordinate clause~ does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Ex.that i wanted

  • Adjective clause~ is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun

Ex.The blonde woman

  • Relative pronoun~ relates an adjective clause to the word or word clause modifies

Ex.The magazine, which arrived in the mail today, is torn.

  • Relative adverbs~ is introduced by when or where

Ex.this is the spot where we caught most of the fish

  • Adverb clause~ is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

Ex.When winter sets in, many animals hibernate

  • Subordinating conjunctions~ A word that shows the relationship between the adverb clasue and the word or words that the clause modifies

Ex.After

  • Noun clause~ is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun

Ex. That they were angry was obvious to the others

Chapter 7: The Four Basic Sentence Structures

  • Structure~ refers to the kinds and the number of clauses it contains. The four kinds of sentences are simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.
  • Simple sentence~ contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses

Ex.meteor and wrote reports

  • Compound sentence~ contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses.

Ex.Crowd cheered

  • Complex sentence~ contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause

Ex.I feel like studying dance

  • Compound-complex sentence~ contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause

Ex.he locked the door

Chapter 8: Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent stopped on 211

Number~ is the form a word takes to indicate whether the word is singular or plural.

Singular~ when a word refers to one person, place,thing or idea, it is singular in number. When a word refers to more than one person, place,thing or idea , it is Plural

Ex.Singular ~ egg plural ~ eggs

Agreement of subject and verb~ a verb should agree in number with its subject / singular subjects take singular verbs/ plural subjects take plural verbs

Ex.the car comes to a sudden stop

Problems in agreement phrases and clauses between subjects and verbs~ The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase or clause following the subject.

Ex.the distance between the two posts is eight feet

Indefinite pronouns~ you may recall that personal pronouns refer to specific people, places,things,or ideas. some pronoun do not refer to a definite person, place,thing or idea and are therefor called indefinite pronouns

Ex.the following indefinite pronouns are singular:

Anybody, anyone,anything,each

The following indefinite pronouns are plural:

both,few,many

The following indefinite pronouns:

all,any,more,most,none

The indefinite pronouns:

all,any,more,most,none

Compound subjects~ subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb

Ex.last year library and museum were built in our town.

Singular subjects~joined by or or nor take singular verb. Plural subjects joined by or or nor take plural verb.

Ex.A pen or pencil is needed for this test

Chapter 9: Principal parts, Regular and irregular verbs, Tense, Voice

Irregular Verbs: It forms a past and past participle in some other way than adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Verb Tense: The tense of a verb indicates the time or where the action is being stated in the sentence.

Consistency of tense: Do not change needlessly from on etence to another.

Passive Voice: A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject.

Active Voice: Expresses an action done to its subject.

Parts Of A Verb, the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, The present participle, the past, and the past participle.

Regular Verbs form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Examples:

Irregular- My friend went to the mall.

Verb Tense- Throughout the year i have saved money to buy a kitten

Consistency- When we think the time is right we go and confess what we did.

Passive- The cake was brought by a happy clown.

Active- The window was broken last night.

Examples:

Irregular- Carlos has gone shopping at the mall.

Verb Tense- Valentine has saved her money, and now she can finally by herself a basketball goal.

Consistency- When we are ready and stretched we go outside and play basketball.

Passive- The balloons were delivered by A happy clown.

Active- Tristyn broke my window last night.

Chapter 10: Using Pronouns Correctly

Case: Is a form of a noun or a pronoun that takes the place to show it's relationship to other words in a sentence.

The Nominative Case: The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.

A predicative nominative should be in the nominative case.

The Objective Case: The direct object should be in the objective case.

An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.

Possessive Case: the pronoun is in the possessive case.

Appositives: A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers to.

Examples:

Case- Many of the people were outside waiting.

Nominative- Did you see them buy tickets for the game.

Direct- Evan surprised them with a gift basket.

Examples:

Case- Many of the singers fans waited outside.

Nominative- Did he and she by tickets to the game.

Direct- Evan surprised them with a gift basket.

Chapter 11: Using Modifers Correctly

Modifier: Is a word group that makes the meaning of another word specific.

Adverb: Adverbs normally end with -ly but not all do.

Adjectives: They also end with -ly so you usually cant tell if its a adverb or adjective.

Linking Verbs: They are followed by a predicate adjective.

Good: Is an adjective, this is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Well: Use well to modify a verb.

Irregular Comparison: The comparison and superlative degree.

Superlative Forms: Use the comparative degree when comparing two or more things.

Else: Use other or else when comparing on member of a group or more.

Double Comparing: Avoid using double comparison.

Double Negatives: Avoid using double negatives

Prepositional Phrases: Consist of a phrase, a noun, or pronoun.

Participle Phrases: Consist of a verb form.

Adjective Clauses: Is a subordinate clause that edifies a noun or pronoun.

Examples:

Modifier- Blake has made many good drawings in the past.

Adverb- You have an amazing.

Adjective- The lady ran so fast she hit a brick.

Linking Verbs- My .

Good- Taylor's voice sounded very good to me.

Well- I do well is basketball.

Irregular Comparison- Good, Better, Well, Worse

Superlative Forms- The second paper is harder than the first.

Else- We weren't letting anyone else get in the door.

Prepositional Phrase- This book is by Judy Gloom Jr.

Participle Phrase- I was yelling for help in my dream.

Adjective- The book that we read was about shoes.

Examples:

Modfier- Ramona makes beautiful drawings.

Adverb- What a lovely dress.

Adjective- Dogs run fast.

Linking Verbs- My story was very powerful.

Good- Taylor's voice sounded very good to me.

Well- You don't look well.

Irregular Comparision- Good, Better, Well, Worse

Superlative Forms- The second paper is harder than the first.

Else- We wern't letting anyone else get in the door.

Preposistional Phrase- This book is by Judy Gloom Jr.

Participle Phrase- I was Eating.

Adjective- The book that we read was about people.

Chapter 12: A Glossary of Usage


Glossary: A alphabetical list of special terms or expressions.

A: Use "A" in front of a word with a consonant sound.

An: Use "an" in front of a word with a vowel.

Accept: Accept is a verb that means to receive.

Except: Is a word that means to leave out or to exclude.

Ain't: Means completley perpared.

A Lot : Should always be written in two words

As: See like, as

As If: To see as a thought

At: Do not use after where

Bad: Is an adjective

Badly: Is an adverb

Examples:

A- He was not considered a hero.

An- He was An external animal.

Accept- I accept your gift.

Exept- Everyone joined except the boys.