Lauren H.~ Language Arts 8th Grade
~What we learned this year~
Chapter 1: Subject and Predicate, and Kinds of Sentences
- Subject~ A subject tells whom or what the sentences is about.
Ex.The Kitten with the white paws is called boots.
- Simple Subject~ Is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.
Ex.Pacing back and fourth in the cage was a hungry tiger
- Simple predicate, or Verb,~ Is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.
Ex.These books Complete Sub./ Are available in the media center Comp. Pred
- Compound subject~ Consists o two or more connected subjects that have the same verb
Ex.Keshia and Todd worked a jigsaw puzzle.
- Compound Verb~ Consists of two or more verbs that have the same subject
Ex.The dog barked and growled at the stranger
- Predicate~A predicate of a sentences tells something about the subject
Ex.Under a large bush sat the tiny rabbit
- Sentence~A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a compresses a complete thought.
Ex.Have you ever seen a baby rabbit?
- Sentence Fragment~ Is a word or word group that looks like a sentence but does not contain both a subject and a verb or does not express a complete thought
Ex.A butterfly with bright blue wings and long antennae
- Declarative Sentence~ Makes a statement and ends with a period.
Ex.The cat ran out the door.
- Imperative sentence~ gives a command or makes a request, Most imperative sentences end with a period.A strong command ends with an exclamation point.
- Interrogative Sentence~ ask a question and ends with a question mark.
Ex.Was the game exciting?
Exclamatory sentence~ Shows excitement or string feeling and ends with an exclamation point.
Ex.What a sight the sunset is!
Chapter 2: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective
- Noun~ A word or word group group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea.
- Compound Noun~ Is made up of two or more words used together as a single noun.
- Common Noun~ Names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas.
- Proper Nouns~ Names a particular person, place, thing, or idea
- Concrete Noun~ Names a person, place, or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses ( sight,HEaring, Taste, Touch, and smell
- Abstract Noun~ Names an idea, a feeling, a quality or characteristic.
- Collective Noun~ Is a word that names a group.
- Pronoun~ Is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.
Ex.When kelly saw the single, She pointed it out to sam
- Personal Pronoun~ Refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person),or the spoken about (third person)
- Reflexive Pronoun~ refers to the subject and functions as a complement or an object of a preposition
- Intensive Pronoun~ emphasizes a noun o another pro noun
- Demonstration Pronoun~ Points out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea
- Relative Pronoun~ introduces a subordinate clause
- Indefinite Pronoun~ refers to a person, a place, a thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.
Adjective~ is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun
Ex.Stone House, Another one, Seven rings
- Articles~ a,an and the
- Indefinite articles~ they refer to a group.
Demonstrative Adjectives~this, that,these and those can be used both as adjectives and as pronouns. modify noun or pronoun
Proper Adjectives~ is formed from a proper noun and begins with a capital letter
Chapter 3: Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection
- Verb~ Is a word used to express action or a state of being
- A helping verb helps the main verb express action or a state of being. Together, a main verb and at least one helping verb. ( also called an auxiliary verb) make up a verb phrase.
- Action Verbs~ is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity
- Linking Verbs~ connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. The noun, pronoun, or adjective that is connected to the subject by a linking verb completes the meaning of the verb.
- Transitive verb ~ is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing, or idea.
- Intransitive Verb~ expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object.
- Adverb~ is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb
Ex.They said the forest fire started Here
- Adverbs modifying verbs ~ adverbs may come before or after the words they modify
Ex.Slowly the man crawled down
- Adverbs or Adjective ~ many adverbs end in- ly. many of these adverbs are formed by adding ly to adjectives.
Ex.Adjective Bright = Adverb brightly
- Adverbs modifying Adjectives
Ex.An Unusually faster started, Lauren won the race.
- Adverbs modifying other Adverbs~
Ex.Our guest left Quite abruptly.
- Preposition~ is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word.
- Preposition phrase~ is the object if the preposition, and modifiers
Ex.the tired tourists climbed onto the crowded bus.
- Conjunction~is a word used to join words or groups of words
- Coordinating conjunction~ join words or groups of words that are used in the same way.
Correlative conjunctions ~ are pairs of conjunctions that join words or word groups that are used in the same way
Interjection~ is a word used to express emotion
Determining parts of speech~ The way a word is used in a sentence determines what part of speech it is.
Ex.Each was painted blue
Chapter 4: Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complemets
- Direct object~ is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.
Ex.Our history class built a model of the Alamo
- Indirect Object~ is a noun, pronoun, or a word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects
Ex. Luke showed the class his collection of books
Objects of verbs~ direct objects and indirect objects complete the meaning of transitive verbs
- Complement ~ is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb
Ex. Incomplete ~ Marlene- s brought-v
Complete ~ Marlene - s brought- v sandwiches - C
- Subject complement~ is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a linking verb and that identifies or describes
Ex.Alice Eng is a dedicated teacher
- Predicate Nominatives~ Is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it
Ex.My aunt's niece is she
- Predicate Adjective~ is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject
Ex.This chili tastes Spicy
Chapter 5: Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phraese
Ex.A message From the other members of the debate team
Prepositional phrase~ Includes a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.
Ex.The car in front of us slid into an icy snowbank
Adjective phrase~ a prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun
Ex.Mrs. O'Meara is the one on the left
Adverb Phrase~ a prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb
Ex.The snow fell Throughout the day
- Verbal~ is a word that is formed from a verb but is used as a noun and adjective or an adverb. There are three kinds of verbals the participle, the gerund and the infinitive
- Participle~ is a verb form that can be used a an adjective
Ex.the smiling child waved
Present participles end in-ing
Most past participles end in -d or -ed. some past participles are irregularly formed
Participial phase~consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements the particles has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective
Ex.after a while, we heard the duck quacking noisily at its own image
- Gerund~ is a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun
Subject~ Skiing down the slope was fun
Predicate Nominative~ Dad's favorite pastime is fishing for trout and bass
- Gerund phrase~ consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. the entire phrase is used as a noun
Ex.Having a part-time job may interfere with your schoolwork
- Infinitive~ is a verb form that can be used as a noun,and adjective, or an adverb. most infinitives begin with to
Ex.To the celing fan took two hours
- Infinitive phrase~consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. the entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb
Ex.the crowd grew quiet to hear the speaker
- Appositive~is a noun or a pronoun placed besides another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it.
Ex.i choose one person,her, to organize the volunteers
- Appositive phrase~ consists of an appositive and its modifiers
Ex.officer web,one of the security guards, caught the burglar
Chapter 6: Independent Clauses and Subordinate Clauses
- Clause~ is a word group that contains a verb and its subject that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence
Ex.Writers gathered at the home of Gertrude Stein
- Independent clause~ Expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a complete sentence.
Ex.The sun set an hour ago
- Subordinate clause~ does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.
Ex.that i wanted
- Adjective clause~ is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun
Ex.The blonde woman
- Relative pronoun~ relates an adjective clause to the word or word clause modifies
Ex.The magazine, which arrived in the mail today, is torn.
- Relative adverbs~ is introduced by when or where
Ex.this is the spot where we caught most of the fish
- Adverb clause~ is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
Ex.When winter sets in, many animals hibernate
- Subordinating conjunctions~ A word that shows the relationship between the adverb clasue and the word or words that the clause modifies
- Noun clause~ is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun
Ex. That they were angry was obvious to the others
Chapter 7: The Four Basic Sentence Structures
- Structure~ refers to the kinds and the number of clauses it contains. The four kinds of sentences are simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.
- Simple sentence~ contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses
Ex.meteor and wrote reports
- Compound sentence~ contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses.
- Complex sentence~ contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause
Ex.I feel like studying dance
- Compound-complex sentence~ contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause
Ex.he locked the door
Chapter 8: Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent stopped on 211
Singular~ when a word refers to one person, place,thing or idea, it is singular in number. When a word refers to more than one person, place,thing or idea , it is Plural
Ex.Singular ~ egg plural ~ eggs
Agreement of subject and verb~ a verb should agree in number with its subject / singular subjects take singular verbs/ plural subjects take plural verbs
Ex.the car comes to a sudden stop
Problems in agreement phrases and clauses between subjects and verbs~ The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase or clause following the subject.
Ex.the distance between the two posts is eight feet
Indefinite pronouns~ you may recall that personal pronouns refer to specific people, places,things,or ideas. some pronoun do not refer to a definite person, place,thing or idea and are therefor called indefinite pronouns
Ex.the following indefinite pronouns are singular:
The following indefinite pronouns are plural:
The following indefinite pronouns:
The indefinite pronouns:
Compound subjects~ subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb
Ex.last year library and museum were built in our town.
Singular subjects~joined by or or nor take singular verb. Plural subjects joined by or or nor take plural verb.
Ex.A pen or pencil is needed for this test
Chapter 9: Principal parts, Regular and irregular verbs, Tense, Voice
Verb Tense: The tense of a verb indicates the time or where the action is being stated in the sentence.
Consistency of tense: Do not change needlessly from on etence to another.
Passive Voice: A verb in active voice expresses an action done by its subject.
Active Voice: Expresses an action done to its subject.
Parts Of A Verb, the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, The present participle, the past, and the past participle.
Regular Verbs form its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.
Irregular- My friend went to the mall.
Verb Tense- Throughout the year i have saved money to buy a kitten
Consistency- When we think the time is right we go and confess what we did.
Passive- The cake was brought by a happy clown.
Active- The window was broken last night.
Irregular- Carlos has gone shopping at the mall.
Verb Tense- Valentine has saved her money, and now she can finally by herself a basketball goal.
Consistency- When we are ready and stretched we go outside and play basketball.
Passive- The balloons were delivered by A happy clown.
Active- Tristyn broke my window last night.
Chapter 10: Using Pronouns Correctly
The Nominative Case: The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case.
A predicative nominative should be in the nominative case.
The Objective Case: The direct object should be in the objective case.
An object of a preposition should be in the objective case.
Possessive Case: the pronoun is in the possessive case.
Appositives: A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers to.
Case- Many of the people were outside waiting.
Nominative- Did you see them buy tickets for the game.
Direct- Evan surprised them with a gift basket.
Case- Many of the singers fans waited outside.
Nominative- Did he and she by tickets to the game.
Direct- Evan surprised them with a gift basket.
Chapter 11: Using Modifers Correctly
Adverb: Adverbs normally end with -ly but not all do.
Adjectives: They also end with -ly so you usually cant tell if its a adverb or adjective.
Linking Verbs: They are followed by a predicate adjective.
Good: Is an adjective, this is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.
Well: Use well to modify a verb.
Irregular Comparison: The comparison and superlative degree.
Superlative Forms: Use the comparative degree when comparing two or more things.
Else: Use other or else when comparing on member of a group or more.
Double Comparing: Avoid using double comparison.
Double Negatives: Avoid using double negatives
Prepositional Phrases: Consist of a phrase, a noun, or pronoun.
Participle Phrases: Consist of a verb form.
Adjective Clauses: Is a subordinate clause that edifies a noun or pronoun.
Modifier- Blake has made many good drawings in the past.
Adverb- You have an amazing.
Adjective- The lady ran so fast she hit a brick.
Linking Verbs- My .
Good- Taylor's voice sounded very good to me.
Well- I do well is basketball.
Irregular Comparison- Good, Better, Well, Worse
Superlative Forms- The second paper is harder than the first.
Else- We weren't letting anyone else get in the door.
Prepositional Phrase- This book is by Judy Gloom Jr.
Participle Phrase- I was yelling for help in my dream.
Adjective- The book that we read was about shoes.
Modfier- Ramona makes beautiful drawings.
Adverb- What a lovely dress.
Adjective- Dogs run fast.
Linking Verbs- My story was very powerful.
Good- Taylor's voice sounded very good to me.
Well- You don't look well.
Irregular Comparision- Good, Better, Well, Worse
Superlative Forms- The second paper is harder than the first.
Else- We wern't letting anyone else get in the door.
Preposistional Phrase- This book is by Judy Gloom Jr.
Participle Phrase- I was Eating.
Adjective- The book that we read was about people.
Chapter 12: A Glossary of Usage
Glossary: A alphabetical list of special terms or expressions.
A: Use "A" in front of a word with a consonant sound.
An: Use "an" in front of a word with a vowel.
Accept: Accept is a verb that means to receive.
Except: Is a word that means to leave out or to exclude.
Ain't: Means completley perpared.
A Lot : Should always be written in two words
As: See like, as
As If: To see as a thought
At: Do not use after where
Bad: Is an adjective
Badly: Is an adverb
A- He was not considered a hero.
An- He was An external animal.
Accept- I accept your gift.
Exept- Everyone joined except the boys.