Science Blog

By: Danesihan

Specialized Cells

What is a Specialised cell?

In multicellular organisms cells become specialised to carry out different functions. This allows the organisms to function more efficiently. This table gives some examples of specialised animal and plant celltypes and their function.

What is the function of the root hair cell?

The function of root hairs is to collect water and mineral nutrients present in the soil and take this solution up through the roots to the rest of the plant. As root hair cells do not carry out photosynthesis they do not contain chloroplasts.

All cells start their lives as identical cells called?

Sterm Cells
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Muscle cell

Muscle Cell Types. Muscle tissue, one of the four major tissue types, plays the vital role of providing movement and heat generation to the organs of the body. Within muscle tissue are three distinct groups of tissues: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle.
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Nerve Cell

The 'control centre' of the cell is known as the cell body. The axon (nerve fibre) transmits electrical signals from the cell body. The dendrites are branching fibres that receive electrical signals from other neurons. The shape of a neuron is determined by the job it does.
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Epithelium Cell

The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make up the outer surface of the body. Epithelial cells help to protect or enclose organs. Most produce mucus or other secretions.
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Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells contain hemoglobin a red, iron-rich protein that gives blood its red color. Hemoglobin enables red blood cells to carry oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body and to carry carbon dioxide from other parts of the body to your lungs so that it can be exhaled.
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Fat cells (Adipocyte)

Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily composeadipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
AQA Unit 2 Biology. Cells lesson 4 Specialised cells

Cell Cycle

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What stage of the Cell Cycle is the diagram shown as?

Metaphase

List the order of the Cell Cycle in order?

Interphase. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis

What is the longest phase in the Cell Cycle?

Interphase, Interphase is know to take up 80% of the time in the Cell Cycle.
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Interphase

The stages of interphase in which the cell grows and functions normally. During this time, a high amount of protein synthesisoccurs and the cell grows.
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Prophase

Prophase is known as the first phase of mitosis, the process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells. During prophase, the complex of DNA and proteins contained in the nucleus, known as chromatin, condenses.
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Metaphase

Metaphase is the third phase of mitosis, the process that separates duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells. During metaphase, the cell's chromosomes align themselves in the middle of the cell through a type of cellular "tug of war."
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Anaphase

Anaphase is the fourth phase of mitosis, the process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells.
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Telophase

Chromosome sets assemble at opposite poles, a nuclear envelope reforms around each set, and cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm) usually follows. The chromosomes assemble in sets at the two poles.
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Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is the physical process of cell division, which divides the cytoplasm of a parental cell into two daughter cells. It occurs concurrently with two types of nuclear division called mitosis and meiosis, which occur in animal cells.
Cell Cycle Phases
This is a video from Khan Academy which will go more in depth into Cell Cycle Phases

Respiratory system

What is the main job of the Respiratory System?

The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.

Name and describe a disease that can occur in the respiratory system?

Asthma, There are two different types of Asthma's (Bronchial Asthma and Cardiac Asthma) Bronchial Asthma is the condition of subjects with widespread narrowing of the bronchial airways, which changes in severity over short periods of time (either spontaneously or under treatment) and leads to coughing, wheezing, and a difficulty in breathing. Cardiac Asthma occurs in left ventricular heart failure and must be distinguished from bronchial asthma, as the treatment is quite different.

Where is the location of the Respiratory system?

The upper respiratory tract contains the respiratory organs located outside the chest cavity: the nose and the nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx and upper trachea. The lower respiratory tract consists of organs located in the chest cavity: the lower trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and the lungs.
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Trachea:

This is your main windpipe, which starts at the back of your throat.

Bronchi:

You have two of these, a left and right one that split off from the trachea to feed each lung.

Bronchioles:

These tiny tubes branch off from the bronchi, extending throughout all of your lungs.

Alveoli:

These are the tiny air sacs that connect to each bronchiole. Blood passes through here, exchanging fresh oxygen from the air for carbon dioxide to be carried back out and exhaled.

Diaphragm:

This is your primary breathing muscle, located at the base of your chest.

The Respiratory System

Cell Organelles

What is the organelle in a cell?

The nucleus, the mitochondrion, the chloroplast, the Golgi apparatus, the lysosome, and the endoplasmic reticulum are all examples of organelles. Some organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts, have their own genome (genetic material) separate from that found in the nucleus of the cell.

What cells are found in both plant and animal cells?

Structurally, plant and animal cells are very similar because they are both eukaryotic cells. They both contain membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes.

Do plant cells have centrioles?

The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. Unlike the centrosomes in animal cells, plant cell centrosomes do not have centrioles.
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Nucleus:

The nucleus is one of the most important organelles in a cell. It is often the largest organelle in animal cells, but this is not always the case. Nuclei contain the genetic material called DNA that is responsible for controlling and directing all cell activities. This is a very important organelle given its vital function.