The Muslim World

James, Baleigh and Ariel

Geography, People, Towns/Trade

Geography
  • Mainly desert
  • The Coast of the Peninsula consists of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, and Arabian Sea


People
  • 2.6 million years ago people started inhabiting this area
  • Artifacts have been found widely
  • many paleolithic sites
  • Bedouins had a nomadic life style


Towns/Trade
  • Crossroads of threes continents- Asia, Africa, and Europe
  • Oasis Helped trading because not much water was common in this area
  • People traded animals, textiles, metals, crops, and spices
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What is...

Revelations
  • He thought that he was the last of the prophets. He decided to teach that Allah was the one and only god and that other gods must be forgotten. Some people agreed and they were called Muslims.


Peaching publicly
  • People believed that his ideas would lead to trouble in Mecca that would cause disruption for the people


Hijrah
  • The migration of followers that moved with Muhammad to the town of Yathrib
  • Turing point for Muhammad , believed that people really want to become part of the religion


Return to Mecca
  • Him and his 10,00 follower marched into Mecca wanting to take the town and convert everybody
  • Destroyed the idols that the city worshiped, then after most people converted to Islam

Islam Expands

The Crisis
  • When Muhammad died it was devastating to the muslim community.They believed they had to carry his word to other areas. They clearly lacked leadership which divided the Muslim community. They believed his profiles because he wrote down what allah said . Also it was just belief system that people wanted to change to because they were tried of believing a different religion.


Fixing The Crisis
  • Elected a leader Abu-bakr, he became know as the first (caliph-successor or deputy)


Rightly Guided Caliphs
  • The caliphs that used the Qur'an and followed Muhammad's commands were know as the Rightly guided Caliphs. The first Rightly guided Caliphs were Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. There reason for success was there arms were well disciplined and very well commanded. Economic had a benefit because Muslims didn't to have to pay poll tax.


Treatment of Conquered Areas and People
  • Follow there own religion but they had to pay a tax each year or have some military duties. Were not allowed to spread religion but allowed to worship it.


Sunni and Shi's Split
  • The split occurred because a family (Umayyads- the first muslim dynasty lasted from 661- 750 A.D)came to power and had different opinion from most. Most people view peace was the answer but little viewed against it. Sooner Or later the to groups of people split. The Shi'a which meant "party" these were the people who were with the idea. The Sunni were the ones against the rule "known as the followers of Muhammad" Most Muslims today are Sunni and a little over 15% are Shi'a. Sufi rejected luxurious life liked the life of the poor and lived for devotion for Muhammad.

The symbol of Islam

Muslim Society

Muslim Citys
  • Cultural center for Islamic learning,
  • symbolized strength
  • Baghdad was the capital city
  • Protected the cities with walls and new inventions


Social Classes
  • Muslims at birth-first class
  • Coverts-second class
  • Protected people(christians,jews)-third class
  • Slaves-fourth class


Role Of Woman
  • Woman weren't in control of themselves the men were
  • The Qur'an does state that men and woman are equal as believers
  • Very little education
  • After a while woman were expected to be veiled and not allowed to show there faces


House Of Wisdom
  • Established Baghdad
  • Library, Academy, and Translation center
  • Scholars of different cultures and beliefs worked side by side translating texts from Greece, India, Persia, and elsewhere into Arabic.

Islamic Art

Calligraphy

  • The art of Beautiful handwriting


Arabesque

  • Complex design, usually incorporates flowers, leaves, and geometric patterns

Mosaics

  • A piece of artwork made up of stone, glass, or tiles arranged in a certain way to create a pattern or picture

Astrolab

  • used to calculate time,events, and relative position, for muslims to helps show were they were in relation to Mecca


People

  • Al-Razi-greatest physician of the Muslim world, wrote several books and a Encyclopedia
  • Al-Khwarizmi- Mathematician, wrote a textbook about algebra
  • Ibn al-Haytham-wrote a book about optics that revolutionized ideas about vision,the book was used to create lenses for microscopes and telescopes in years to come
  • Ibn Rushd- a philosopher that tried tabled islamic views with Plato's views, Preposed the idea that philosophy had one reason to find the truth

Dome of the Rock

  • muhammad was believed to ascended into heaven at this spot

Islamic Beliefs and Practices

Basic Beliefs

  • There is only one God
  • There is good and evil
  • Each person is responsible for there actions

Five Pillars of Islam

  • Faith- Must believe there is no God but allah, and muhammad is his messenger
  • Prayer-must pray five times a day and face toward Mecca
  • Alms-Give money to poor though religious tax
  • Fasting-fast between dawn and sunset, spiritual needs are greater than physical needs
  • Pilgrimage- perform in the hajj at least once in there lifetime, must were the same clothing

Definitions

  • Qur'an- Islamic holy book
  • Mosque- Islamic house of Worship
  • Sunna- An islamic model for living based on the teachings of Muhammad
  • Shari'a- a body of laws governing lives of Muslims
  • Ramadan-Islamic holy month


Common Relations with Judaism and Christianity

  • Allah is the same God that jews and Christian believe in
  • Muslims Jesus was a profit not the son of God
  • All three believe in the Day of Judgement
  • There is 1.6 billion muslims in the world today