ANCIENT GREECE VS. ROME

BY KAYLA GARCIA

ANCIENT GREECE

RELIGION- The Greek were very religious people and they worshiped many gods. Sources such as the Iliad and the Odyssey tell us about interactions between men and the gods, who appeared in human form with supernatural powers.


FUNERARY ART- There was not that much funerary art, but the Greek did put a coin in the mouth of the deceased. The Greek believed that this would allow the dead to cross over to the world of the dead. They believed that if there was no coin, the dead would wander the shores of Greece for one hundred years. The coin was pay for Charon, the ferryman for Hades who sent the deceased across the rivers Styx and Alcheron (the division of the living and dead worlds). More funerary art included stone statues, tomb chambers, and mummy portraits.


MEN- Most men spent most of their lives away from home, either involved in the government or in the fields. Men's wives and daughters could not attend their drinking parties. Other hobbies of men in ancient Greece were wrestling, horseback riding, and the Olympics.


WOMEN- Women were in charge of the house and took care of the children. They typically had slaves, so they did not do the menial work. Most could not go to as many festivities as the men. They could only go to weddings, funerals, and meet other women for small amounts of time.


CHILDREN- Children were considered to be the younger generation until they were 30. Other than Sparta, the Greek islands made the daughters stay at home help their mother.


EDUCATION- The Greek education was made to prepare the younger Greeks for their work as an adult. Sparta was a city-state who believed in having a strong and disciplined military. They believed in a life of discipline, self-denial, and simplicity.

Boys- At the age of 7, boys were sent to a military school. They would go through a very complicated training until they were 18 that would focus on war. Their training was usually very painful and challenging; the Sparta did not focus on reading and writing as much as they did with warfare. At 18, they became military cadets and joined the state militia at 20. Although, the military cadets had to take a difficult test which focused on their skills and fitness. Anyone who did not pass became part of the middle class, also known as a perioikios. Those who passed would serve until they were 60 years old.


Girls- Sparta was the only Greek city-state to provide training for girls that went beyond simple housekeeping. They were not forced to leave home and their training was very similar to that of the boys. The girls would also take a skills and fitness test. If they did not pass, a girl would become a perioikos and lose her rights as a citizen. Those who did pass would be assigned a husband and able to go home.


PETS- The Greek did not prefer cats, but liked dogs, birds, mice, goats, and tortoises.


CLOTHING- Men and women wore linen in the summer and wool in the winter. They wore warm cloaks and tunics. Most families made their own clothing, since it was expensive to by clothing from the market. Their hair was always curled and fixed well. Their clothing usually represented their city-state.


OCCUPATIONS- Soldiers, Slaves, Metics


DIET- Olives, Figs, Dried Fish, Cheese, Wine, Vegetables, Fruit


WARFARE TECHNIQUES- The soldiers had light armor for mobility and structured armies. They had included religion and ritual before fights as well.


CRIME AND PUNISHMENT- If a man committed a crime, he would have to pay a fine. Although, women would be thrown down a deep chasm. Before 700 BCE, there were no real laws. So if someone murdered another citizen, it was likely that the victim's family would kill the murderer.


ENTERTAINMENT- There were more than 200 Greek dances that were accompanied by flutes, tambourines, cymbals, and many more instruments. Greece is also known for their outdoor theaters. We know that the music in Greece included harps, pipes, etc. based off of vase paintings.

ROME

GOVERNMENT- Early Republic/ Aristocracy


RELIGION- The Romans were not as religious, but used sacrifices and prayer before they were introduced to Christianity. Before then, they were influenced by Greek in Italy.


EDUCATION- Education was important as the kids in Rome were taught about law, history, and social customs. Girls typically did not go to school, and a boy's education lasted from the age of 11-16.



SPORTS- Chariot Racing, Gladiator Battles, Jumping, Wrestling, Boxing, Racing, an activity reassembling Hand Ball


ART- Art included sculptures, fine art paintings (vase- painting, murals) , Mosaics, Jewelry, Ivory Carving


GENDER ROLES-

Men were in charge of the house but worked outside of the house. The roles of rich and poor men were very different. The rich were businessmen and the poor were farmers, craftsmen, or shopkeepers.

Women were expected to stay at the house and very little had jobs outside of their houses. They would watch over their children and some worked more than others based on their wealthiness.

As a child, wealthier children started school at the age of 7. Boys stayed at school longer than girls, and the different genders learned different things.


CLOTHING- Men wore the most beautiful clothing compared to other Romans. All wore long material called togas. Women would also wear togas along with fixing their hair, putting on makeup, and wearing jewelry. Children would wear shorter togas that were like their parents.


DIET- Roman diet consisted of cereals, fruits & vegetables, and seafood.


ENTERTAINMENT- Entertainment was found in three notable places such as the Colosseum, The Circus Maximus, and The Campus. The Romans would be entertained by gladitorial battles, fight with men vs. wild animals, chariot races, foot racing, jumping, archery, wrestling, and boxing.


OCCUPATION- Farmers, Craftsmen, Businessmen, Shopkeepers


CRIME AND PUNISHMENT- Romans would be fined with either fees,banishment, slavery, and death if they committed murder, forgery, or stealing.