Volcano Eruption

Volcano eruption in Iceland Eyjafjallajökull 2010

This has caused a great amout of destruction.......

There hadn’t been many volcano eruption in Eyjafjallajökull since the last ice age but, on March 20th 2010, a small volcano eruption occured. Although it was relatively small, it left behind a lot of destruction. Along with that, it caused a great amount of delay in the air travel for a long period of time. This eruption was divided into 2 phases.

The first phase of the eruption lasted from March 20th to April 12th 2010. The eruption

ejected, olivine basaltin andesite lave several hundred metres into the atmosphere, also known as an effusive eruption. About 800 people were evacuated. Lots of roads were blocked off by the police. Even the mountain pass that connected 2 villages. But everything was opened again on March 29th. But the roads were closed again when the second fissure appeared because of the danger of floods.

On March 22nd, a flow meter device in Krossá glacial river suddenly started to rise in water level and in water temperature, the temperature rose by 6 °C (11°F) over a two-hour period of time, which had never happened so quickly in the Krossá river since the measurements had begun. Shortly afterward, the water level returned to normal and water temperature decreased. The temperature of Hruná river, which flows through the narrow Hrunárgil canyon, into the lava stream where the lave had been flowing, was recently recorded by geologists to be between 50 °C (122 °F) and 60 °C (140 °F), indicating that the river has been cooling the lava in that canyon.

Around 23:52 GMT, a red cloud was seen at the north Fimmvorouhals mountain pass. A fissure opened up about 150 metres (490ft) in length running in a north-east to south-west direction, with 10 to 12 erupting lava craters ejecting lava at a temperature of about 1,000 °C (1,800°F) up to 150 metres (490ft) into the air. A bew fissure opened on March 31st , around 200 metres (660ft) north-west of the original fissure. It was a bit smaller, around 300 metres (980ft) long according to witnesses, and lava coming from it started to flow into Hvannárgil canyon. These two erupting fissures share the same magma chamber according to geophysicists.

On April 14th 2010, the eruption enetered into the second phase, also known as an explosive phase and ejected fine glass-rich ash to over 8 kilometres (5.0mi) into the atmosphere. The second phase is estimated to be a VEI 4 eruption.

Samples of volcanic ash collected near the eruption showed a silica concentration of 58%, which is much higher than in the lava flows. Agriculture is important in this region of Iceland, and farmers near the volcano have been warned not to let their livestock drink from contaminated streams and water sources, as high concentrations of fluoride can have deadly effects.

The Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority released an announcement on April 18th , asking all horse owners who keep their herds outside to be on alert for falling ash. Lots of thick layers of ash has covered farm land, making it hard to farm, harvest, or grazing livestock.

Unlike the earlier eruption phase, the second phase occurred beneath glacial ice. Cold water from melted ice quickly cooled the lava, causing it to break into glass particales that were carried into the eruption plume. The magnitude of the eruption (estimated to be VEI 4) and being ten to twenty times than the eruption of Flimmvorouhals on March 20th , injected a glass-rich ash plume into the Jet Stream. The location where the eruption happened, was right underneth the Jet Stream, and all the ash was carried into the busy airspace over the northen and central Europe, causing delay to the air travel.

This eruption has left over 600 people injured, only a few killed. The destruction that has been left behind the eruption is great and hopefully, Iceland got lots of help from other countries to fix up all that damage.

Safety Precautions

If you are one of the people that live near a volcano, you need to take these tips to be safe....

Safety Tips

• Stay away from active volcanoes.

• If you live near an active volcano, keep goggles and a mask in an emergency kit, along with a flashlight and a working, battery-operated radio.

• Know your evacuation route. Keep gas in your car.

If a Volcano Erupts in Your Area

• Evacuate only as recommended by authorities to stay clear of lava, mud flows, and flying rocks and debris.

• Avoid river areas and low-lying regions.

• Before you leave the house, change into long-sleeved shirts and long pants and use goggles or eyeglasses, not contacts. Wear an emergency mask or hold a damp cloth over your face.

• If you are not evacuating, close windows and doors and block chimneys and other vents, to prevent ash from coming into the house.

• Be aware that ash may put excess weight on your roof and need to be swept away. Wear protection during cleanups.

• Ash can damage engines and metal parts, so avoid driving. If you must drive, stay below 35 miles (56 kilometers) an hour.