Reconstruction Era

Will M.

10 Percent Plan

The 10 Percent Plan was the blueprint for Abraham Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction, for after the Civil War ended. The plan basically states that a southern state could be readmitted to the Union once 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to the Union. After pledging allegiance they would have to agree that slavery was illegal. If all went according to plan, then Lincoln would offer amnesty, or grant pardon to every southern state who complied. Unfortunately, Lincoln was assassinated before this plan was put into action.

The Freedmen's Bureau

The Freedmen's Bureau was established by the Congress in 1865 to help freed slaves, and poor whites in the South after the Civil War. The Freedmen's Bureau provided housing, food, and medical aid. It also established schools, and even offered legal assistance. The Bureau was opposed by many white southerners, and even President Andrew Johnson. After succumbing to the pressure of the South, Congress shut down the Freedmen's Bureau in 1872.

13th, 14th, and 15th Amendment

13th Amendment

This amendment abolished slavery, and involuntary servitude. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, and by the House of Representatives on January 31, 1865.

14th Amendment

This amendment granted citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States". This included all freed slaves. This amendment was ratified on July 9, 1868.

15th Amendment

This Amendment allowed any male citizen the right to vote, no matter their race, color, or if they were a former slave. Unfortunately, this did not give women the right to vote.

The Black Codes

The Black Codes were laws passed by the South in 1865 and 1866. These laws were created to restrict African Americans' freedom. The Jim Crow Laws are an example of a black code. Jim Crow Laws segregated restaurants, railroads, schools, public restrooms, and even drinking fountains.
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Carpetbaggers and Scalawags


Carpetbaggers were people form the North who moved to the South. It is said that most people left the North for money or political gain during the Reconstruction.


Scalawags were Southern whites who supported the Republican Party after the Civil War.

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