Digestive & Excretory System


Causes: Gallstones are caused by your bile containing too much cholesterol. Another cause of gallstones is your bile having too much bilirubin which breaks down red blood cells, also if your gallbladder does not empty correctly then it will cause the bile to build up.

Description: Gallstones are hardened digestive fluids that build up in your gallbladder. It can cause intense pain in the abdominal area, it can also cause pain between the shoulder blades and in the right shoulder.

Treatment: Some gallstones that don't show symptoms won't need to be treated, but the ones that do show signs can either be surgically removed or there is a medication that will dissolve the gallstone.

Prevention: Ways to prevent gallstones are, to lose weight slowly because rapid weight loss can cause gallstones. Try not to skip meals and stick to a daily meal schedule. If you maintain a healthy weight then you will reduce your risk for gallstones.

Kidney Stones

Causes: Kidney stones are caused when your urine contains more crystal forming substances such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, than the urine can dilute.

Description: Kidney stones are small, hard deposits that form in your kidneys. Kidney stones can affect any part of the urinary tract.

Treatment: Small kidney stones can be passed by drinking water, taking pain relievers, and some medical therapy. Large stones can be broken down from a process which uses sound waves, another way is through surgery.

Prevention: Kidney stones can be prevented by drinking water, eating less oxalate-foods which can cause calcium oxalate stones, also having a diet with low salt and low animal protein will help to reduce risk.