Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

by Alex Lippmann

what is Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer that starts in cells called lymphocytes when abnormal cell start to reproduce rapidly. Lymphocytes are part of the body’s immune system. Lymphocytes are in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues (such as the spleen and bone marrow).

smyptoms on Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

people may have high fevers, night sweats, weight loss. Other sings are...
  • Enlarged lymph nodes
  • Swollen abdomen (belly)
  • Feeling full after only a small amount of food
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Shortness of breath or cough
  • Fatigue (extreme tiredness)
  • Low red blood cell counts (anemia)

TREATMENTS

-Chemotherapy

Kills cells that are growing or multiplying too quickly.

-Steroid

Modifies or simulates hormone effects, often to reduce inflammation or for tissue growth and repair.

-Bone marrow stimulant

Helps bone marrow produce new blood cells.

statictics

  • About 71,000 patients will be diagnosed with NHL in 2015, and approximately 19,500 patients will die of NHL in the U.S.

Specialists

-Oncologist


Specializes in cancer.

-Hematology pathologist



Specializes in diagnosing blood disorders.

-Radiologist



Uses images to diagnose and treat disease within the body.

-Nuclear medicine doctor



Applies radioactive substances to diagnose and treat disease.

- Radiation oncologist



Treats and manages cancer by prescribing radiation therapy.

who does it effect?





Ages affected




0-2


Very rare





3-5


Very rare





6-13


Very rare





14-18


Rare





19-40


Rare





41-60


Rare





60+


Common






Gender-Overall, the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is higher in men than in women, but there are certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that are more common in women


-In the United States, whites are more likely than African aAmericans and Asian Americans to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Also In the United States, whites are more likely than African Americans and Asian Americans to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Affects on the body

The most distinctive way that non-Hodgkin lymphoma affects the body is by the overproduction of lymphocytes causing the build-up of tumors and the swelling of lymph nodes in the affected regions of the body.Also other parts of the body may experience build-up of cancerous lymphocyte tumors as well.

What are the causes?

  • DNA-the process of cell division is not perfect, and errors can occur that may affect genes within the DNA. Cancers can be caused by DNA mutations (changes) that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes
  • HEREDITY-Some people inherit DNA mutations from a parent that increase their risk for some types of cancer. But non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not one of the cancer types often caused by these inherited mutations.
  • TRANSLOCATION - DNA from one chromosome breaks off and becomes attached to a different chromosome. When this happens, oncogenes can be turned on or tumor suppressor genes can be turned off. Some lymphomas tend to have specific chromosome defects
  • IMMUNE DEFECTS
  • AGE-Getting older is a strong risk factor for lymphoma overall, with most cases occurring in people in their 60s or older.

prevention tips

there is no way to protect against lymphoma. For now, the best way to reduce the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma is to try to prevent known risk factors such as immune deficiency and Preventing the spread of the human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus

How is it diagnosed?

  • Tests and procedures used to diagnose non-Hodgkin's lymphoma include:
  • Physical examination. Your doctor may conduct a physical exam to determine the size and condition of your lymph nodes and to find out whether your liver and spleen are enlarged
  • Blood and urine tests.