Factors/Theories Influencing Ageing

Old age is defined as anyone over the age of 65.

Erikson's Stages

There are 7 stages in Erikson's stages of ageing. These include; infancy, early childhood, play age, school age, adolescence, young adult, adulthood and old age. Each of these habe 'physiological crisis'' in.

Infancy- Trust vs. Mistrust

Play Age- Autonomy vs. Shame

School Age- Industry vs. Inferiority

Adolescence- Ego identity vs. Role Confusion

Young Adult- Intimacy vs. Isolation

Adulthood- Generative vs. Stagnation

Old Age- Ego integrity vs. Despair.

The basic virtue's of these are hope (infancy), will (early childhood), purpose (play age), competency (school age), fidelity (adolescence), love (young adult), care (adulthood) and wisdom (old age).

These stages represent the personality and abilities of stages in life. They explain the problems and issue's that individual's go through as they grow up.

Frail Older Age and End of Life Stage

Frail older age can lead to people having complex medical problems, lower ability for independent living and needing assistance for independent living.Because of these issue's, the government deliver free services to them such as dental appointments, free prescriptions and eye tests. This may be seen as the governments perspectives that this age group, or life stage, are more incapable than the younger stages. This may not be true for all people over this age, however it may also be true for those under 65. As a result of this, it may be classed as ageism. Those younger, who have the same issue's may not receive these same benefit's and therefore are discriminated against.

In an individual's end of life stage, their care changes. Rather than focus on improving their health (it may not be possible if they are at this stage) they are more focused on keeping an individual as comfortable as possible. They may have years, months, weeks or even days left and so allowing them to be with their family and making them comfortable is necessary. This could however, be an individual's perspective. They may have different view on how to make them comfortable. For example, whether they should stay at home, at a residential home or at a hospital. It also depends on what someone's attitudes are towards how to treat an individual at this age.

Negative Factors Influencing Health and Wellbeing

In older age, people often find they regret things that they did or didn't do in their life. This could mean they may find they isolate themselves from people as a result of feeling down, or possibly depressed.

Older people often suffer with illness', either mentally or physically. Mental illness' could include dementia, Alzheimer etc. which may not only affect them, but also their friends and family. These people may find it difficult to be around them and so may not visit them as much as they could or should as they are reaching the end-of-life stage. This could also lead them to social isolation, especially if they live on their own rather than a residential home. The individual's may also think of themselves as a burden to their carer's and try to distance themselves from them- in particular if they have a physical disability and need a carer 24/7.

Their living conditions can vary. If they do find themselves living alone and have trouble with looking after themselves, their living conditions may have declined since they were of better health. This may further affect their health as it may cause asthma, make trouble getting around etc.

Positive Factors Affecting Health and Wellbeing

Old ages people receive free things from the government such as prescriptions, eye tests and dental appointments. this not only helps their health but also their financial status. It is common that elderly people often need a lot of medication or eye tests and so paying for this will be a very costly expensive.

In order to improve the social lives, living in a residential home will allow them to socialize with other people their age and participate in activities with them.