Civil Rights Movement

Jasmine Supchukun

Civil right movement : more equal and just society.

In the history of the United States there have been many social changes that have occurred. One of the most significant social change in my perspective is Civil Rights movement. Civil rights movement had changed the United States to a more equal and more integrated country. The societies became one. It gave African Americans the same citizenship rights that whites took for granted. Imagine how today will be like if those people weren't fought for their right. I really appreciate and honor to every hero in the Civil Rights movement.

In this flier, information about Civil Rights movement are provided such as strategies that had been used in 1960s, unsung heroes, and two important groups.

The Tactics and Strategies.

In the civil rights movement's, there were three-pronged strategy combined which are Civil disobedience, Grass-roots organizing, and Boycotts and economic withdrawal.

Civil disobedience or nonviolent direct action is the use of dramatic protests that disrupt normal activities and usually violate the law. Dr.King got this strategy while he was at Cozer. He became interested and familiar with civil disobedience philosophy and teaching of Ghandi. The most extensive applications from civil disobedience were the freedom rides and the sit-in's, actions that directly violated the morally unjust laws enforcing segregation.

Grass-roots organizing is the common or ordinary people, especially as contrasted with the leadership or elite of a political party, social organization. Important grass-root organization are NAACP, CORE, SCLC, SNCC, and Freedom Riders. Grass-root organizations played a huge role in bringing about significant victories in the struggle of black equality.

The third strategy of the civil rights movement was boycott and economic withdrawal. The Montgomery campaign of bus system boycott in Birmingham was the first victory in civil rights movement. As an effect of economic withdrawal, this was the most powerful weapon in nonviolent arsenal.

Unsung hero : Ella Baker

Baker was born on December 13,1903. In her childhood, she listened to her grandmother tell stories about slave revolts. In 1940, Baker began her involvement in NAACP.Baker led the New York NAACP branch's fight to desegregate New York City public schools. She resigned from NAACP staff in 1946. In 1957, She moved to Atlanta to organize King's new organization- the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). She stayed there for two years even though she was not advocate of the the on great leader model of civil rights movement, but believed that "strong people don't need strong leaders." In April,1960, Baker was a leader in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and worked with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Baker continued to take part in SNCC mostly as a quiet leader who listened, respected and encouraged the young activists until her death on December 13, 1986, her 83rd birthday.

Unsung hero : Bayard Rustin

Bayard Rustin was born in West Chester, Pa., on March 17, 1912. He taught Dr. King about Gandhi's philosophy of non-violent resistance and advised him on the tactics of civil disobedience. He assisted Dr. King with the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1956 and March on Washington for jobs and freedom in 1963. One factor that suppressed his fame was he was an openly gay man, which didn't gave him a high credit as a leader in the Civil Rights movement. Rustin refused to hide his way of life. As a result Dr. King's advisers asked Rustin to stand in the shadows opposed to sharing the spotlight. Rustin passed away at the age of 75 in 1987. However, his effort in Civil Rights movement was recognized by President Barack Obama. On November 20,2013, Rustin was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civillian honor.
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NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

An organization founded by Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington and W. E. B. Du Bois. Their mission is to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination. The NAACP's headquarter is in Baltimore, Maryland. The NAACP’s greatest victory was when the Supreme Court reversed Plessy v. Ferguson with the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. NAACP favored and believed in using the courts rather than the civil disobedience

CORE: The Congress of Racial Equality

CORE was founded on the University of Chicago campus in 1942. CORE mostly focused a pacifist, non-violent approach to fighting racial segregation, but by the late 1960s the group’s leadership had shifted its focus towards the political ideology of black nationalism and separatism. In 1960, They actively supported the sit-in movement at lunch counter that refused to serve black.On May,1961, CORE organized the first Freedom rider desegregate interstate transportation facilities in Alabama. CORE was a cosponsor in the March of Washington.