Mid Year Science Review

Chemistry, Earth History, Infectious Diseases

Groups and Periods

Groups: Columns going up and down of the elements on the Periodic Table that share common properties

Periods: There are 7 on the periodic table, horizontal left and right rows on the periodic table.

Law of conservation of mass

States that matter cannot be created nor destroyed, it can only be transferred from state to state.

Elements, Compounds, Mixtures

Elements: Building blocks of matter made of atoms

Compounds: A substance formed by 2 or more elements chemically combined

Mixtures: Combination of two or more different substances that are mixed but not combined

Physical/ Chemical Properties

Physical Properties: A characteristics that you can Observe without changing the composition of the substance and you use your senses.

Describes: Looks, Smells, Feels, Sounds and Tastes.

Chemical Properties: A characteristic that you can only observe by changing the identity of the substance

Describes: How something reacts

Physical/ Chemical Change

Physical Change: Any change that does not involve in the substances chemical identity.

Ex: Block of ice melting

Chemical Change: Any change in matter that results in the form of a new chemical substance.

Ex: Cracking and egg

-Typically cannot be reversed.

-A new substance is formed as a result of a chemical reaction


Solution: A substance made as result of mixing solids and liquids and the solid dissolves.

Matter: Anything that takes up space and that has mass.

Atoms: Basic building blocks of any matter.

Law of Superposition

The geologic principle that states that in a horizontal layer of sedimentary rock each layer is older then the one above it and younger then the one below it.

Relative/Absolute Dating

Relative Dating: Sequence of how events accrued, not how long.

Absolute Dating: The process of establishing the age of an object determining the number of years it existed, Actual number

Half-life/Radioactive Dating

Half-Life: Length of time needed for half of the atoms to decay

Radioactive Dating: How they determine how old the fossils are


Fossil: trace or remains of an organism

Fossil Record: total number of fossil that have been discovered

Relative: To compare like things

Absolute: exact

Uniformitarianism: The geologic principle that the same geologic process that operate today operated in the past to change earths surface


An extremely small living thing that causes a disease and that spreads from on e person or animal to another


Microscopic living organism usually one celled that can be found everywhere can be extremely dangerous to cause a disease


any of a group of unicellular, multicellular, or syncytial spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter, including molds, yeast, mushrooms, and toadstools.


An organism that grows and feeds and sheathed on or in a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of its host

Epidemic vs. Pandemic

Epidemic: affecting or tend to effect a disproportional larger numbers of individuals within a population

Pandemic: accruing over a wide geographic area and effecting a large amount of people

How to Prevent/treat microorganisms

How to prevent: you can prevent a microorganism with a vaccine

You treat it: you treat it with antibiotics

Biotechnology- Careers

Biotechnology: The use of living cell, bacteria etc. to make useful products

Careers: Agriculture biotechnology, Laboratory Assistant and Bioinformatics Specialist


the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.


Genetic Engineering: The science of making changes to the genes of a plant or animal o produce a desired results

Genetically Modified Organism (GMO): An organism or microorganism whose genetic material has been altered by means of genetic engineering

Cloning: To produce a copy or imitation

DNA; is the molecule that contains the genetic code of organisms

Bio-Remediation: the use of microorganisms or other forms of life to consume and break down environmental pollutants, in order to clean up a polluted site