Cells

By Stephen Arensberg

Nucleus

The nucleus is found in both plant and animal cells. This is because the nucleus is the control center or the brain. It tells all of the organelles what to do. The nucleus contains DNA and controls what proteins the cell produces. This "brain" also holds a set of genes.
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Cell Membrane

The cell membrane is in both plant and animal cells, and acts as the doorman. It controls what goes in the cell and what goes out of the cell.
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Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm in a cell is the jelly-like liquid that holds all of the organelles in place. This liquid is found in both the plant cells and the animal cells. The cytoplasm also makes sure that the internal pressure of the cell stays the same so it doesn't shrink.
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Ribosome

The ribosomes are the little dots in a cell diagram. The ribosomes are the parts of the cell that create proteins that the cell needs. These are like little factories inside of the cell and are found in both plant and animal cells.
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Mitochondria

The mitochondria is a very important part of the cell because it is the organelle where the energy is made and then released. It breaks down sugar molecules that enter the cell and use them to produce ATP energy to fuel the cell. This organelle is found in both plant and animal cells.
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Vacuole

As well as the mitochondria and all other organelles in a cell, the vacuole is very important. The vacuole is where all of the water and nutrients that the cell needs to survive are stored. This also stores waste so the cell doesn't become contaminated. It is an organelle found in both plant and animal cells.
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Golgi Body

In this organelle the liquids and proteins are grouped into packages. The Golgi body is like the packaging plant for the cell. It is also called the Golgi Apparatus because "apparatus" means body. This is found in both the plant and animal cells.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum

The ribosomes around the outside of the ER are told by the nucleus what proteins to make and then are sent to the ER where they are prepared for transport to the Golgi body. The endoplasmic reticulum is found in both plant and animal cells.
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Lysosome

The lysosomes are the part in the cell that breaks down waste and detoxify poisons to clean up the cell. Besides breaking down all the waste, they also keep any materials that will be useful for the cell. These lysosomes are only found in animal cells.
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Chloroplast

Through a process called photosynthesis, the chloroplasts convert the sun's rays into energy that can be used by the cell. These chloroplasts can only be found in plant cells because only plants make their own food.
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Cell Wall

The cell wall is a sturdy wall that surrounds the entire cell and protects the cell from injury. It also keeps the cell's shape the same. You can only find a cell wall in a plant cell.
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Cell Theory

There are three main statements of the cell theory. All living things are made from cells. Cells cary out the functions needed to support life. Cells come only from other living cells.
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Organization for Cells

There is a certain way our body functions. Knowing the organization for cells will help you understand: Cells make up tissue which makes up organs which makes up organ systems which makes up organisms (animals, plants, etc.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are very different. Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotes and they have a nucleus. The DNA is contained inside the nucleus. Some examples of a eukaryotic cell are animals, plants, protists, and fungi. However prokaryotic cells were the first cell to evolve. They do not have a nucleus but they still have DNA. The DNA is just located in the cytoplasm instead of the nucleus. Archaea and bacteria are examples of a prokaryotic cell.
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