Mid-Year Review

Chemistry, Earth History, Infectious disease Efren G

Chemistry 8.p.1 Understand the properties of matter and changes that occur when matter interacts in an open and closed container

- Physical and chemical properties

Physical-Can be observed or measured without change

Chemical- Can only be observed during a chemical reaction

- Physical and Chemical Change

Physical- Does not form a new substance

Chemical- One or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties

- Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

Elements- Building blocks of matter made of atoms

Compounds- Substance formed when two or more elements chemically combine

Mixtures- Combination of two or more different substances that is mixed but not combined

- Periodic Table

A table with elements ordered in atomic number in groups and periods

*Groups-Columns in the periodic table that go up and down and share common properties

*periods- Seven horizontal rows in the periodic table

*Metals- Metals, Transition Metals, Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth metals, all of these are harder than the elements and have a higher chance to react with one another

*Non-metals- These are poor conductors of heat and electricity and tend to form salt

*Metalliods- a mixture of metals and non metals

*Atomic Number- the number of protons and electrons found in an atom

*Atomic mass- the mass of an atomic particle

*Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons- The three parts that make an atom

- Law of conservation of Mass- Matter can not be created or destroyed it can only be transferred from state to state


*Atomic #

*Chemical Properties

*Physical properties
*Atomic mass

Earth History

- Law of Superposition- A form of relative dating that states in a layer of rock the oldest layer is on the bottom and the youngest at the top.

- Index fossils- Fossils of a widely distributed organism that lived during one short period of time

- Ice cores- A core sample removed from an ice sheet with air bubble to help determine the climate back then

-Geologic time Scale- Four different eras that Earth went threw

*Precambrian Era

*Paleozoic Era

*Mesozoic Era

*Cenozoic Era

- Relative dating- The age of a rock compared to the ages of rock layers

- Absolute dating- Used to determine the exact age of a rock or fossil

-Half-life/Radioactive Decay- The time it takes for 1/2 of the isotopes to decay


*Geology- The study of earth

*Index fossil

*Relative Dating

*Absolute dating

*Law of superposition

*Ice core

Infectious Disease

- Microorganisms- Microscopic living organism

* Virus- A small infectious agent that replicates only in a host cell

* Bacteria- A large domain of prokrayotic microorganism

* Fungi- Eukaryotic celled organism that live by decomposing dead organisms

* Parasite- An organism that lives on a host and benefits from its nutrients

- Epidemic- An outbreak of an infectious disease in a small area

- Pandemic- An outbreak of an infectious disease in large populations

- Biotechnology- The use of living cells, bacteria, etc. to make products

*Careers- Forensics, Agricultural, Medical Scientist, Biological Technicians, etc.

* Agriculture- the Cultivation of animals plants fungi for food , fiber, an bio-fuel

* Medicine- the science of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease

* Economy- Careful management of available resources



* Cloning

* Genetic Engineering

* Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

* Bio Redemiation
* Bio Technology