The Information Age
The Internet and Education
The Information Highway
21st Century Learning
Popular Social Media
What does this mean for education?
The Partnership for 21st Century Skills suggests that “education adapts learning methods to meet the demands of the 21st Century.” I have chosen a couple models for incorporating technology into classrooms and teaching students how to be 21st Century learners:
The Flipped Classroom Model
The core idea is to flip the common instructional approach and make the instructional portion of class accessible from home and in advance of class. Students have online access to video lectures, PowerPoint presentations and other educational tools, thus allowing for the "class to become the place to work through problems, advance concepts, and engage in collaborative learning. Most importantly, all aspects of instruction can be rethought to best maximize the scarcest learning resource—time" (Tucker, 2012).
Blended Learning Approach
Blended learning combines multiple modes of information delivery and is designed to promote learning and application-learned behaviour. It is generally considered to be a "mix of traditional instructor-led training, synchronous online conferencing or training, asynchronous self-paced study, and structured training" (Singh, 2003, p. 51).
Inside-Out Learning Model
The goal of the model is authentic self-knowledge, diverse local and global interdependence, adaptive critical thinking, and adaptive media literacy (Heick, 2012). Teachers are curators of resources and learning tools in order to promote a healthy learning environment. It's an interesting model as it promotes project-based learning, play, gamification and mentoring. The model encourages students to be knowledge-makers and classrooms to be think-tanks. It also requires students to reflect on their own learning and to participate in local community projects.
Young people are reading and writing (typing) more as they participate online and educators need to present students with opportunities to engage ideas in more compelling ways. "As our students enter the workforce, the ability to deal with complex and often ambiguous information will be more important than simply knowing a lot of facts or having an accumulation of knowledge (Frand, 2000, p. 17)". Learning in the 21st Century is about fostering online and classroom communities. It is about student-centered learning environments.
Teachers facilitate the learning process by being student-centered. It is important to be aware and sympathetic towards students’ backgrounds and their various relationships within the class. Bruner (1985) explains that the teacher "serves the learner as a vicarious form of consciousness until he (or she) is able to master his own action through his (or her) own consciousness and control" (p. 24). It is also important to incorporate traditions and different learning strategies because every student is unique with his/her own learning styles. When a student becomes aware of what he/she is capable of, then that student is well on his/her way to success. A teacher’s role is to challenge students with respect to curricular material and to support them when they are having difficulty. The underlying assumption is that students learn through assistance, resulting in subsequent development that will enable them to independently interpret and solve such problems later (Vygotsky, 1986, p. 188; Norton & d’Ambrosio, 2008, p. 221).
All images are sourced through creativecommons.org
Alexander, B. (2008) Web 2.0 and Emergent Multiliteracies, Theory Into Practice, 47:2, 150-160, DOI: 10.1080/00405840801992371
Bruner, J. (1985). Vygotsky: A historical and conceptual perspective, In J. V. Werstch (Ed.), Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives (pp. 21-34). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Frand, J. L. (2000). The information age mindset: Changes in students and implications for higher education. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0051.pdf
Frank Kelly, T. M. (2008). Teaching the Digital Generation. Nelson Education.
Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board. (2012). Education for the 21st century: Here, now and into the future. Retrieved July 26, 2012 from http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/strategic-directions-education-in-hwdsb-full-report.pdf
Heick, T. (2012, November 20). The Inside-Out School: A 21st Century Learning Model. TeachThought. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from http://www.teachthought.com/learning/inside-out-school-21st-century-learning-model/
Internet Society. (2014). Brief history of the Internet. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet
Norton, A., & D'Ambrosio, B. S. (2008). ZPC and ZPD: Zones of teaching and learning. Journal for research in mathematics education, 220-246.
Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2009). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from Partnership for 21st Century Skills
Project Happening (2013, Jun 22). A brief history of the Internet-Animated documentary [video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVTUi6wWN3M
Singh, H. (2003). Building effective blended learning programs. Educational Technology, 43(6), 51-54.
Tucker, B. (2012). The flipped classroom: Online instruction at home frees class time for learning. Education Next, 82-83.
Vygotsky, L. (1986) Thought and language (A. Kozulin, Ed.). Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.