English Language Arts & Reading

It's All About Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening!

4th Six Weeks Unit Overviews and Key Understandings

One semester down and one more to go! This fourth six weeks is going by quickly. With benchmark testing in full swing students and teachers are busier than ever! Be sure to ask your children how they performed on their recent benchmark exams or check in with your children's teachers.


If you have questions about the information presented here or if you want to know how to be more involved in your child's school please contact me.


Marta L. Salazar

Director of English Language Arts & Reading

Dyslexia Coordinator

Parent Involvement Coordinator

361-664-0981

marta.salazar@aliceisd.net

Reach Out and Read National Center

Reading Tips from “Reach Out and Read National Center”

Parents can make reading with their children part of the daily routine. Reading together in the evening can become an important part of the bed time ritual. Here are some additional suggestions for making reading together a pleasurable experience. „

Make Reading Part of Every Day

  • Read at bedtime or on the bus. „

Have Fun

  • Children who love books learn to read. Books can be part of special time with your child. „

A Few Minutes is OK

  • Young children can only sit for a few minutes for a story, but as they grow, they will sit longer. „

Talk About the Pictures

  • You do not have to read the book to tell a story. „

Let Your Child Turn the Pages

  • Babies need board books and help to turn pages, but your three year-old can do it alone. „

Show Your Child the Cover Page

  • Explain what the story is about. „

Show Your Child the Words

  • Run your finger along the words as you read them. „

Make the Story Come Alive

  • Create voices for the story characters and use your body to tell the story. „

Ask Questions about the Story

  • What do think will happen next? What is this? „

Let Your Child Ask Questions about the Story

  • Use the story as an opportunity to engage in conversation and to talk about familiar activities and objects. „

Let your Child Tell the Story

  • Children as young as three years old can memorize a story and many children love an opportunity to express their creativity.

- Reach Out and Read National Center „ 29 Mystic Ave., Somerville, MA 02145

WHAT CHILDREN LIKE IN BOOKS

INFANTS 6-12 MONTHS LIKE

  • Board books with photos of babies
  • Brightly colored board books to touch and taste
  • Books with pictures of familiar objects—balls, bottles
  • Small books sized for small hands


YOUNGER TODDLERS 12-24 MONTHS LIKE

  • Sturdy board books they can handle and carry
  • Books with photos and pictures of children doing familiar things— sleeping, eating, playing
  • Goodnight books for bedtime
  • Books about saying goodbye and hello
  • Books with only a few words on the page
  • Books with simple rhymes or predictable text


OLDER TODDLERS 24-36 MONTHS LIKE

  • Books with board pages—but also books with paper pages
  • Silly books and funny books
  • Rhymes, rhythms, repetitious text—books they can learn by heart
  • Books about children and families
  • Books about making friends
  • Books about food
  • Books about animals
  • Books about trucks
  • Word books


PRESCHOOLERS 3-5 YEARS LIKE

  • Books that tell stories
  • Books about kids that look like them and live like them—but also books about different places and different ways of living
  • Books about going to school, books about making friends
  • Books with simple text they can memorize
  • Counting books, alphabet books, vocabulary books


Read to answer the question: Why do babies need books?

http://www.scholastic.com/parents/resources/article/developing-reading-skills/why-babies-need-books

Pre Kindergarten Classrooms 4th Six Weeks

Unit 5 From Jungle to Desert

Week 1- What is a jungle?

PA: Words in a sentence, with manipulatives / Alliteration

Letter: Pp

Week 2- What are jungle animals?

PA: Words in a sentence, with manipulatives /Alliteration

Letter: Qq

Week 3- What is a desert?

PA: Words in a sentence, without manipulatives /Alliteration

Letter: Rr

Week 4- What are desert animals like?

PA: Words in a sentence, without manipulatives/Alliteration

Letter: Ss

Unit 6 Earth and Sky

Week 5- What happens when day changes to night?

PA: Syllabication/ Compound words

Letter: Tt

Week 6- What happens when the weather changes?

PA: Review words in a sentence and syllabication/ Compound words

Letter: Uu

For more information click on the following links:

Kindergarten Classrooms

Unit 04: Growing Readers and Writers through Informational Text

This unit teaches students to gather information to learn new things by using expository and procedural text. Patterns in phonological awareness, phonics, conventions, and print awareness continue to be practiced in order to reinforce literacy learning and comprehension.

During this unit, students continue to explore phonological awareness, phonics, and print awareness for the purpose of decoding and encoding language. Letter/sound associations are examined as students read and write VC and CVC, words. Students identify topics and details heard or read in expository texts by utilizing their knowledge of words and illustrations. They discuss ways in which information is grouped and make predictions based on titles and illustrations. They dictate or write lists, captions, and invitations for the purpose of communicating information. Students identify the meaning of environmental print by reading familiar signs and follow pictorial directions in order to complete a task. Vocabulary continues to develop through connections and experiences as students explore informational text.


Unit Vocabulary

  • Expository text – a type of informational text that clarifies or explains something
  • Procedural text – a type of informational text that is written with the intent to explain the steps in the procedure, as in a recipe
  • Topic – what the author is writing about, the subject (e.g., polar bears)
  • Details – support the main idea by telling how, when, what, where, why, how much, and how many


Listed below is a small sampling of what your child is learning:


STUDENTS ARE LEARNING TO: BLEND SPOKEN PHONEMES

  • Phoneme – the smallest unit of sound in speech (e.g. the /s/ /a/ /d/ of sad; in Spanish, /l/ /a/ and /d/ /a/)
  • Syllable – a word or part of a word pronounced with one uninterrupted sound (e.g., cat has one syllable, lion has two syllables- li/on)
Possible examples of one-syllable words:
  • Two phonemes: /a/…/m/ says am
  • Three phoneme: /m/…/a/…/n/ says man
  • Four phoneme: /s/…/t/…/o/…/p/ says stop

Possible example of teacher prompt:

  • What would the word be if I said /m/… / ā/… /d/? (made)


STUDENTS ARE LEARNING TO RECOGNIZE THAT NEW WORDS ARE CREATED WHEN LETTERS ARE CHANGED, ADDED, OR DELETED


Including, but not limited to:

  • Beginning letters: add, change, and/or delete the beginning letter(s) in a word to make new words
  • Ending letters: add, change, and/or delete the ending letter(s) in a word to make new words
  • Middle letter: add and/or change the middle sound in a word to make new words

First Grade Classrooms

Unit 04: Growing Readers and Writers Using Informational Text

This unit focuses on expository and procedural text for the purpose of building comprehension for informational purposes. Patterns in phonological awareness, phonics, conventions, and print awareness continue to be introduced and practiced in order to reinforce literacy learning and comprehension during independent reading, shared reading, and writing.

During this unit, students continue to explore phonological awareness, phonics, and print awareness for the purpose of decoding and encoding language with appropriate fluency. The importance of spelling and syllable patterns is critical in helping students enhance the automaticity that will come from recognizing and practicing phonetic patterns in language. Automaticity supports student’s reading comprehension of text. Students continue to build on their automaticity when rules for dividing syllables facilitate a students’ ability to read and spell more complex words. As students begin to create and understand informational text, they identify topics, purpose, and details with an emphasis on the main ideas and order of events. They utilize text features (e.g., title, table of contents, illustrations, bold print, italicized print, charts, graphs) to locate specific information and use words and illustrations to make predictions to retell events. Students write brief compositions about topics of interest and write short letters using appropriate conventions (e.g., salutations, closing, date). Students continue to increase vocabulary by exploring compound words and use knowledge of the meaning of their individual component words. As they explore informational text, word meanings are determined from how they are used in a sentence.


Unit Vocabulary

  • Expository text – a type of informational text that clarifies or explains something
  • Text features – features in text to help locate information (e.g., title, table of contents, illustrations, photographs, bold text, italicized texts, charts, graphs)
  • Procedural text – a type of informational text that is written with the intent to explain the steps in the procedure, as in a recipe


STUDENTS ARE LEARING TO DECODE WORDS WITH COMMON SPELLING PATTERNS

Focus on CVCe patterns.

  • Decode – apply knowledge of letter-sound relationships in order to sound out a word. In reading practice, the term is used primarily to refer to word identification rather than word comprehension.


Including, but not limited to:

  • Common word families (e.g., -ink, -onk, -ick)
  • Other possible examples of common spelling patterns (word families):
  • -ack, -ail, -ain, -ake, -ale, -ame-, -an, -ank, -ap, -ash, -at, -ate, -aw, -ay, -eat, -ell, -est, -ice, -ide, -ight, -ill, -in, -ine,-ing, -ip, -it, -ock, -oke, -op, -ore, -ot, -uck, -ug, -ump, -unk


STUDENTS ARE LEARNING TO USE THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE MEANING OF BASE WORDS

  • Base word – a word that stands alone and has its own meaning


To identify and read

  • COMMON COMPOUND WORDS
  • Compound word – a word made when two words are joined to form a new word

Possible examples of common compound words:

  • Airplane, anyone, backpack, backyard, baseball, basketball, bathroom, bedroom, birthday, bookcase, campfire, classroom, cowboy, cupcake, daydream, daylight, football, haircut, inside, lunchroom, mailbox, notebook, pancake, playground, popcorn, sunshine, toothbrush, upstairs.

2nd Grade Classrooms

Unit 4: Preparing Readers and Writers through Informational Text

This unit includes student expectations that emphasize expository text, procedural text, and media for the purpose of building comprehension for informational purposes. Patterns in phonics and conventions continue to be introduced and practiced in order to reinforce fluent reading and writing.

During this unit, students examine more closely informational text and distinguish the main idea from the topic. They continue to use text features with the addition of the use of a glossary, index, headings and subheadings to locate specific information. They write brief compositions about topics of interest and write short letters using appropriate conventions (e.g., salutations, closing, date). Students become purposeful in their use of processes and strategies and continue to communicate and monitor comprehension as vocabulary increases by continued word study.

Unit Understandings:


  • Comprehension skills and processes support the understanding of expository text.
  • Text features contribute to the main idea and details in informational text.
  • Comprehension skills and processes support the understanding of expository text.
  • Text features contribute to the main idea and details in informational text.
  • Knowledge of a topic is demonstrated in a variety of forms.
  • Readers make connections in order to understand
  • Awareness of word patterns supports the development of word reading, fluency, and spelling
  • Authors utilize the conventions of letter writing to communicate clearly and effectively.


Unit Vocabulary

  • Expository text – a type of informational text that clarifies or explains something
  • Procedural text – a type of informational text that is written with the intent to explain the steps in the procedure, as in a recipe. Procedural text could house data that requires reader interpretation.
  • Main idea – the overall message of a text or section of a text (e.g., Polar bears are becoming endangered.)
  • Topic – the subject of the text (e.g., polar bears)
  • Vowel digraph or vowel pair – two vowels that together represent one phoneme or sound (e.g., ea, ai, oa)
  • Diphthong – a combination of two vowel sounds in one syllable to form a new phoneme


STUDENTS ARE LEARNING TO IDENTIFY AND READ ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviation – a shortened form of a word used to save time, space, and energy when writing

  • Including, but not limited to:

Abbreviations for titles: Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr.

Abbreviations for road or street types: Ave., St., Rd.

  • Other possible examples of abbreviations:

Days of the week

Months of the year

STUDENTS ARE LEARNING TO MAKE CONNECTIONS TO

  • Including, but not limited to:

Own experiences – things done or seen

Ideas in other text – concepts that connect one text with another text

Larger community – a group of people that have the same interest or live in the same area

Third Grade Classrooms

Unit 4A: Discovering Procedural Text

This unit bundles student expectations that address the understanding and use of procedural text and documents in order to support reading for understanding and writing to inform. Procedural text makes it possible for students to make inferences, summarize, and provide textual evidence during reading.

Graphic features such as charts, tables, graphic organizers, captions, illustrations, keys, graphs, and diagrams are used to follow directions and solve problems. Students compose letters for specific audiences and purposes by using appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing).


Unit Understandings


  • Readers interpret written directions in order to learn how to do new things.
  • Text structure helps the reader organize information and construct meaning.
  • An extensive vocabulary supports the development of oral and written communication.
  • Authors choose form for audience and purpose.
  • Readers use strategies to support understanding of text.
  • Readers create connections to make text personally relevant and useful.
  • An extensive vocabulary supports the development of oral and written communication
  • Readers use strategies to identify the intended meaning of words and phrases in text.


Unit Vocabulary


  • Salutation – greeting in a letter
  • Palindrome – a word or phrase that reads the same backward as forward (e.g., wow)
  • Homograph – a word that is spelled the same as another word, but that has a different meaning, (e.g., read [present tense] and read [past tense])
  • Homophone – a word that is pronounced the same, but not spelled the same, as another word and that has a different meaning (e.g., bear andbare, week and weak)
  • Base word – words that can stand alone and has its own meaning
  • Root – the basic part of a word that carries meaning


Unit 4B: Establishing a Position

This unit introduces students to persuasive texts with the intent that they understand that authors write to influence, convince, express, justify, and promote a point of view.

During this unit, students continue to explore informational texts through the examination of persuasive purpose. Students make inferences and draw conclusions in order to determine the author’s point of view and/or message conveyed. Students learn to take a stand on an issue and provide supporting details to compose persuasive essays using the fundamentals of the writing process and specific language to influence and convince readers by justifying their position. Students continue to explore language while building on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to effective comprehension and communication. Word study is inclusive of genre specific vocabulary, literary terms, and appropriate vocabulary from the text and is experienced before, during, and after reading.

Fourth Grade Classrooms

Unit 4A: Understanding Research


During this unit, students continue to summarize informational text by locating and using specific information utilizing relevant sources and they learn to apply those skills to research. Students generate an idea, develop a plan, and gather information from experts, reference texts, and online searches. Information is collected using skimming and scanning techniques. Students take notes to gather information relevant to their research question(s). Students organize data and write brief explanations differentiating between paraphrasing and plagiarism while using the writing process to communicate their own understanding. Students continue to communicate understanding of text through oral and written expression and make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres.

Students explore language while building on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to the ability to comprehend and communicate effectively.

Unit Understandings:

  • Researchers ask questions and develop a plan for answering them to gain knowledge and experience new discoveries.
  • Researches gather information and systematically record the information they gather to gain knowledge and experience new discoveries.
  • Researchers gather and present findings from different sources for specific purposes.
  • Authors choose structure to organize information to construct meaning.


Unit Vocabulary

  • Works-cited page – a reference to a source that is published or unpublished
  • Bibliographic information – the locating information about a source (i.e., book, journal, periodical, or Web site)- For example, a book’s bibliographic information consists of author, title, place of publication, publisher, and date of publication


Unit 4B: Understanding Connections Across Literary Texts

This unit bundles student expectations that focus on the relationships across and between literary works in order for students to make connections. Students examine a variety of forms of literary text representing a wide range of themes and compare and contrast features specific to different literary genres.

During this unit, students use previously learned skills to examine a variety of literary genres presenting similar ideas while recognizing features specific to each genre. Students examine thematic links and logical relationships within and across texts. The exploration of a variety of genres supports the development of personal reading preferences and provides a foundation for participation in discussions. Students continue to compose original text using the fundamentals of the writing process to communicate their own understanding and ideas. Students explore language while continuing to build on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to the ability to comprehend and communicate effectively.


Unit Understandings:


  • Readers create connections to make text personally relevant and useful.
  • Authors use writer’s craft to engage and sustain the reader’s interest.
  • Authors establish a purpose and plan for the development of a story.
  • Readers use strategies to support understanding of text.
  • Readers create connections to make text personally relevant and useful.
  • Readers use writing to communicate deeper understanding of texts.

Unit Vocabulary

  • Analogy – a vocabulary exercise in which an association between a concept and its attribute is present (e.g., hot:cold as north:_____)
  • Affix – a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that occurs before or after a root or base word to modify its meaning (e.g., the prefix un- and the suffix -able in unbelievable)
  • Literary text – written works that are generally recognized as having artistic value - Basic forms of literary text are prose fiction, drama, poetry, and literary nonfiction.

Fifth Grade Classrooms

Unit 4A: Making Connections Across Literary Genres

This unit bundles student expectations that focus on the relationships across and between literary works in order for students to make connections and synthesize information. Students examine a variety of forms of literary text representing a wide range of themes and compare and contrast features specific to each genre. Students continue to use processes to make inferences, summarize, and provide textual evidence during their reading.

Students analyze texts by making comparisons in purpose, perspective, and themes. Students examine thematic links and logical relationships within and across texts. The exploration of a variety of genres develops personal reading preferences and provides a foundation for participation in discussions. Students continue to compose original text using the fundamentals of the writing process to communicate their own understanding and ideas. Students explore language while continuing to build on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to the ability to comprehend and communicate effectively.

Unit 4B: Making Connections Across Information Genres

This unit bundles student expectations that focus on the relationships across and between informational genres in order for students to make connections and synthesize information.

Students analyze texts by making comparisons in purpose, perspective, and topics. Students examine logical relationships within and across texts. The exploration of a variety of informational texts develops personal reading preferences and provides a foundation for participation in discussions. Using the writing process, students continue to compose original text to communicate their own understanding and ideas. Students explore language while continuing to build on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to the ability to comprehend and communicate effectively.

eSpark Learning: Comparing/Contrasts Texts with Different Genres Instructional Video (6.RL.9)

6th Grade Classrooms

4A: Exploring Persuasive Text and Media

This unit bundles student expectations that support and advance the understanding of structure, elements, and techniques in persuasive text and media literacy. Persuasive techniques in both print and media formats are examined for the purpose of awareness that the truth is sometimes manipulated in order to achieve a specific response and/or reach a certain audience. Persuasive text and media (e.g., advertisements, newspapers, magazines, web pages, commercials, product labels) provide the avenue for students to make inferences, summarize, synthesize, and provide textual evidence during reading. Students examine teacher-selected and self-selected literature and media based on individual interests and abilities, providing opportunities to make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres. An emphasis on the integration of reading and writing skills along with word study allow the continued development of the processes necessary for comprehension and written communication.

During this unit, students examine persuasive text and media by comparing and contrasting the structure and viewpoint of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claims, and supporting evidence. Students identify and critique the role of persuasive techniques such as faulty reasoning, false factual claims, bandwagon approach, and false authority in influencing readers’ and viewers’ emotions. Students communicate their beliefs and opinions by writing persuasive essays that establish a position and include sound reasoning and relevant evidence. Vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and grammar are studied throughout the unit to support comprehension and oral and written communication.


Unit 4B: Generating Connections – Literary Text

During this unit, students use previously learned skills to examine a variety of literary genres presenting similar ideas while recognizing features specific to each genre. Students analyze literary texts and media by making comparisons in purpose and perspective. Students compare and contrast historical and cultural settings in literary texts. The exploration of a variety of genres will continue to develop personal reading preference and provide a foundation for participation in discussions. Students continue to compose original text using the fundamentals of the writing process to communicate their own understanding. Students explore language while continuing to build on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to the ability to comprehend and communicate effectively.

Persuasive Techniques

7th Grade Classrooms

Unit 4A: Understanding Persuasive Text and Media

In this unit of study students will examine persuasive techniques in both print and media formats for the purpose of awareness that the truth is sometimes manipulated in order to achieve a certain response and/or reach a specific audience. Persuasive texts and media (e.g., advertisements, newspapers, magazines, web pages, commercials, product labels, speeches, etc.) provide the avenue for students to make inferences, summarize, synthesize, and provide textual evidence during reading. Students examine teacher-selected and self-selected texts and media based on individual interests and abilities, providing opportunities to make important personal and world connections within and across different contexts and genres. An emphasis on the integration of reading and writing along with word study allow the continued development of the strategies necessary for oral and written communication.

Students will examine persuasive texts and media by analyzing the structure of the central argument in contemporary policy speeches and identifying the different types of evidence used to support the argument. Students examine persuasive texts and media for the purpose of recognizing and understanding the use of rhetorical fallacies, interpreting both explicit and implicit messages, evaluating various ways media influences and informs audiences, and interpreting how visual and sound techniques influence the message. Students communicate their beliefs by writing persuasive essays that establish a clear position and include sound reasoning and relevant evidence based on anticipation of others’ concerns and counter-arguments.


UNDERDEVELOPED CONCEPTS:

It is important that students are clear on the meaning of media. Media (singular: medium) carries something. A medium is used to store or transmit information. We acquire information through different media forms such as digital, visual, and audio (e.g., radio, T.V., film, CDs, DVDs, Internet [email, web surfing], and digital communication [e.g., cell phone, text messages, blogs]). Mass media refers to T.V. and radio, print media refers to newspapers and magazines, and digital media refers to internet, web sites, cell phone, and text messages.


Unit Vocabulary

  • Rhetorical fallacyan argument that is not sound but may still be convincing
  • Ad hominema rhetorical fallacy in which the intent is to attack the character or circumstance of the proponent of the position in order to distract from the argument
  • Appealthe means of persuasion in an argument. According to Aristotle, there are three fundamental appeals to convince a person: reason (logos), ethics (ethos), and emotion (pathos).
  • Logical fallacy – an incorrect or problematic argument that is not based on sound reasoning (e.g., Because everything is bigger in Texas, you can expect a bigger salary in Texas.)
  • Emotional fallacy – appeal to audience’s emotions
  • Ethical fallacyunreasonably advance the writer’s own authority or character
  • Explicit message – specific, clear, detailed (leaves little room for interpretation)
  • Implicit message – uses visuals, body language, etc. to communicate meaning; the meaning must be inferred


Unit 4B: Formulating Connections Across Literary Texts

Students will examine a variety of literary texts representing a wide range of themes in literary works in order to support understanding of written and visual text, as well as, enhance writing.

During this unit, students use previously learned knowledge and skills to examine a variety of literary genres presenting similar ideas while recognizing features specific to each genre. Students analyze literary texts and media by making comparisons in purpose and perspective and make text, personal, and world connections. Students describe multiple themes in works of fiction. The exploration of a variety of genres continues to develop personal reading preferences and provide a foundation for participation in discussions. Students continue to compose original text using the fundamentals of the writing process to communicate their own understanding.


Underdeveloped Concepts:

Some students confuse the theme of a literary work with the topic. The topic is the subject while the theme is a comment, an observation, a lesson or an insight about the subject. Topics can be stated in one or two words. Themes should be stated in complete sentences.

Unit Vocabulary:

  • Theme: the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay.
  • Purpose: the intended goal of a piece of writing; the reason a person writes.

8th Grade Classrooms

Unit 4A: Creating Connections Across Literary Text


In this unit lessons will address reading and writing processes and skills that have students make more in-depth connections between literary texts from various cultural and historical backgrounds. During this unit, students use previously learned knowledge and skills to examine a variety of literary texts presenting similar ideas and themes. Students analyze texts by making comparisons in purpose and perspective. Connections between mythologies from various cultures are examined by comparing and contrasting similarities and differences. Students continue to compose original text using the writing process to communicate their own understanding. Students explore language while continuing to build on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to the ability to comprehend and communicate effectively. The unit focuses on the concepts of: making connections via interpretations, the significance of theme and setting, understanding story elements (plot, setting, conflict, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution), and figurative language (sensory details, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification, and irony).


Unit Vocabulary:

Myth: a body of traditional or sacred stories to explain a belief or a natural happening.

Theme: the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay.


Unit 4B: Creating Connections Across Information Text

This unit continues to address the reading and writing processes and skills that help students make more in-depth connections between literary texts. During this unit, students use previously learned knowledge and skills to examine a variety of texts presenting similar ideas and topics and analyze informational texts by making comparisons in purpose and perspective. Students compose a multi-paragraph essay using the fundamentals of the writing process to communicate their understanding of persuasive texts. Students explore language while continuing to build on the principles that vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and grammar are critical to the ability to comprehend and communicate effectively. This unit focuses on the concepts of: Text structure (organizational patterns), audience/purpose, point of view, and message.

English I & II Classrooms

English I

Unit 4: Intentional Persuasion

This unit bundles student expectations that address persuasive text (e.g., speeches) and media literary (e.g., web pages, online information, television, documentaries, commercials, blogs, newspapers) for the purpose of shaping perceptions and beliefs about reality. Students examine what the media and text present, how it is presented, and what factors affect the way it is created. Through the study of print and non-print, students identify and analyze the effect of persuasive techniques in order to incorporate them into their own writing and to facilitate informed decision making.

During this unit, famous speeches are examined for their use of rhetorical structures and devices and their effectiveness to convince or influence the reader. Evaluation of credibility is revisited as students analyze the relevance and quality of evidence given to support or oppose an argument. Students analyze by comparing and contrasting coverage of the same topic in various media forms to determine how messages are communicated through the use of visual and sound techniques.


Underdeveloped Concepts:

  • Students may be unaware of the power of persuasive techniques in media and texts and may lack the understanding that media and communication in general are persuasive. They may passively believe messages rather than critiquing them for credibility and subtle influences.


Unit Vocabulary:

Rhetorical fallacy – an argument that is not sound but may still be convincing. Rhetorical fallacies may be divided into three categories:

  1. Emotional fallacies appeal to the audience's emotions.
  2. Ethical fallacies unreasonably advance the writer's own authority or character.
  3. Logical fallacies depend upon faulty logic

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments

Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages

Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)



English II

Unit 4: Purposeful Persuasion

This unit bundles student expectations that address persuasive text (e.g., political debates) and media literary (e.g., web pages, online information, television, documentaries, commercials, blogs, newspapers) for the purpose of shaping perceptions and beliefs about reality. Students examine what the media and text present, how it does so, and what factors affect the way it is created. Through the study of print and non-print, students identify and analyze the effect of persuasive techniques in order to incorporate them into their own writing and to facilitate informed decision making.

During this unit, political debates are examined for their use of rhetorical and logical fallacies such as appeals to commonly held opinions, false dilemmas, appeals to pity, and personal attacks. Evaluation of credibility is revisited as students explain shifts in perspectives and evaluate the accuracy of evidence given to support the viewpoint. Students analyze coverage of the same topic in various media forms to determine how perception or bias influences the audience. Students incorporate their persuasive knowledge and their analysis of media techniques to write a persuasive text to influence attitudes or actions of a specific audience using a clear position supported with relevant and creditable evidence.


Underdeveloped Concepts:


  • Students may be unaware of the power of persuasive techniques in media and texts and may lack the understanding that media and communication in general is persuasive. They often passively believe messages rather than critiquing them for credibility and subtle influences.


Unit Vocabulary:

Bias – a speaker’s personal opinions or beliefs regarding a topic, issue or situation

Rhetorical fallacy – an argument that is not sound but may still be convincing. Rhetorical fallacies may be divided into three categories:

  1. Emotional fallacies appeal to the audience's emotions.
  2. Ethical fallacies unreasonably advance the writer's own authority or character.
  3. Logical fallacies depend upon faulty logic

Counter arguments – an argument against your thesis or some aspect of your reasoning

Formality in media – refers to the level of sophistication in language, word choice, appearance, and delivery of media messages

Tone in media – the stated or implied attitude and/or reputation of a media outlet (e.g., humorous, sentimental, hostile, sympathetic, neutral, etc.)

Argumentative essay – an essay in which the writer develops or debates a topic using logic and persuasion

Thesis – a statement or premise supported by arguments 2) the subject or theme of a speech or composition

Information on the unit overviews is taken from the TEKS Resource System

Marta L. Salazar - Director of English Language Arts/Reading; Dyslexia Coordinator; Parental Involvement Coordinator