Dwyer, Atkinson, Woodward, Baker

Surface Mining

Broad category of mining in which soil and overlying the mineral deposit are removed.
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Strip Surface Mining

Obtaining ore and coal by open-pit mining
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Open-Pit Mining

A surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the Earth by removal from an open pit.
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Mountain Top Removal

Form of surface mining that involves the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.
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Sub-surface Mining

Sub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits.
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Slope mining is a method of accessing valuable geological materials such as coal, or ore.
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The mining of an ore deposit by underground methods or the working of coal seams accessed by adits driven into the surface outcrop of the coal bed.
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  1. Excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.