African National Congress

By: Elena Grijalva

Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika

God Bless Africa
Raise up our descendants
Hear our prayers.
Come, Holy Spirit,
Come, Holy Spirit,
Lord bless us,
Us, your children
South Africa National Anthem English lyrics

Connection to Kaffir Boy

Originally introduced by Mark's friend David

Underground movement
Inspiration for many black South Africans to go against apartheid
Many of Mark's school mates join the radical wing during the student protests

Fouding Of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC)

Later became the African National Congress (ANC) in 1923
January 8, 1912
Established to unite people in order to create political, social, and economic change
Founded by Pixley Seme, Alfred Mangena, Richard Msimang, and George Montsio

Going Against Aparthied

1919- led a campaign against passes
1920- supported militant strike by mine workers

Until the 1940S there was little direct protest, instead they relied on white liberal intermediaries

1939-1945 began to amass members and organize. Local elections held for advisory board positions.

1949- Established a "program of action"- encouraged strikes, boycotts, and civil disobedience as a means to achieve self determinism

1952- Began a defiance campaign which increased membership to 100,00

1956- issued the "Freedom Charter" which outlined their goals of equality

1959- Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) split from ANC.

1960- PAC's large protest against pass books results in PAC and ANC being outlawed

1961- Founded uMkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation)

1961- Pan-Africanist launched its armed wing Poqo, later Azanian People's Liberation Army

1963- Leaders of uMkhonto we Sizwe arrested and most are killed

1980s Beginnings of peace and reform talks

1990- Legalized

1994- End of Apartheid, Nelson Mandela elected, making ANC the leading political organization

Big image


John Dube

-Founder and first South African Native National Congress president. Well known essayist and writer

Pixley Seme

-Founder and first African National Congress president. Studied in America

Albert Luthli

-Teacher, politician, and tribal chieftain. President of ANC in 1951, arrested, Nobel peace prize in 1960

Nelson Mandela

President of ANC from 1990-1999. First elected president of South Africa (1994-1999). Helped to decrease racism

Africa Dancing with Nelson Mandela -

Works Cited

"African National Congress (ANC) | South African History Online." African National Congress (ANC) | South African History Online. South African History Online, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <>.

"A Brief History of the African National Congress." A Brief History of the African National Congress. African National Congress Website, n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. <>.

"African National Congress." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2008. 25 Feb. 2013 <>.

Mandela, Nelson (2004) [1994]. Long Walk to Freedom Volume II: 1962–1994 (large print edition). London: BBC AudioBooks and Time Warner Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0754087247.

Mathabane, Mark. Kaffir Boy: The True Story of a Black Youth's Coming of Age in Apartheid South Africa. New York: Macmillan, 1986. 229-30. Print