Greek Squad Project


Greek Literature

The Odyssey

The Odyssey focuses on the Greek character Odysseus and his ten year journey from Troy to Ithaca after the fall of Troy , from the the Trojan war. The poem covers both circumstances that befell his family in Ithaca and his own perilous adventures back from Troy. Whilst in in Odysseus absence at home, his son Telemachus and his wife Penelope have to deal with suitors who move into their home, in an attempt to take Odysseus place and ask Penelope's hand in marriage.

Sappho's Hymn to Aphrodite

Iridescent-throned Aphrodite, deathless

Child of Zeus, wile-weaver, I now implore you,Don't--I beg you, Lady--with pains and tormentsCrush down my spirit,

But before if ever you've heard my pleadingsThen return, as once when you left your father'sGolden house; you yoked to your shining car yourWing-whirring sparrows;

Skimming down the paths of the sky's bright etherOn they brought you over the earth's black bosom,Swiftly--then you stood with a sudden brilliance,Goddess, before me;

Deathless face alight with your smile, you asked meWhat I suffered, who was my cause of anguish,What would ease the pain of my frantic mind, andWhy had I called you

To my side: "And whom should Persuasion summonHere, to soothe the sting of your passion this time?Who is now abusing you, Sappho? Who isTreating you cruelly?

Now she runs away, but she'll soon pursue you;Gifts she now rejects--soon enough she'll give them;Now she doesn't love you, but soon her heart willBurn, though unwilling."

Come to me once more, and abate my torment;Take the bitter care from my mind, and give meAll I long for; Lady, in all my battlesFight as my comrade.

Roles of the People

  • Men had the dominant role in public life in Ancient Greece.
  • The men were engaged in politics and public events while women were often encouraged to stay home.
  • When men were entertained, their wife's were not invited to dinner.
  • The Olympic games were for males only, while in another part of Olympus, the women had a small event in honor of Hera.
  • In Athens, pale skin was in style for women, showing that they were wealthy enough to stay inside.
  • Also in Athens, only very poor women were found at the agora without a male escort.
  • The sheltering of women was not S common in other Greek cities. For example, in Sparta, women had much more freedom and a larger role in society, but still secondary to men.

Rules of the Greek Society

  • Greece in the Archaik period was made up from independent states, called Polis, or city state. The Polis of Athens included about 2,500 square kilometers of territory, but other Polis had smaller areas of 250 square kilometers.

  • Greek society was mainly broken up between free people and slaves, who were owned by the free people. Slaves were used as servants and laborers, without any legal rights. Sometimes the slaves were prisoners of war or bought from foreign slave traders. Although many slaves lived closely with their owners, few were skilled craftsmen and even fewer were paid.

  • As Athenian society evolved, free men were divided between citizens and Metics. A citizen was born with Athenian parents and were the most powerful that could take part in the government of the Polis. After compulsory service in the army they were expected to be government officials and take part in the jury service. A Metic was of foregon birth that had migrated to Athens, to either trade or practice a craft. A Metic had to pay taxes and sometimes required to server in the army. However, they could never achieve full rights of a citizen, neither could they own houses or land and were not allowed to speak in law courts.

The contributions to the society and relation between the U.S. and Greece

  • People come from all around to look at our Nations Capitol building and and our White House, both of which were built by, or with Grego-Roman architechture.
  • Euclid is the father of geometry.
  • The Greek used science to help with sickness first, and they stared doctors.

  • Greece, and especially Athens is the cradle of democracy in the western civilization. Athen owes the first penal and civil law code to Draco.
  • An outstanding statesman and poet acted in Athens at the same time as Draco. In 594 BC he was elected as the first archon-the highest state official who could today be compared to a prime minister.
  • The difference between a prime minister and an archon lies in the fact that the latter was elected annually and had executive and judicial power, was in command of the army and preformed priestly functions.
  • Due to the strong political, cultural and religious ties between the two nations, Greece and the United States today enjoy excellent diplomatic relations and consider each other a friendly nation. Both countries are members of several international organizations such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and NATO, and both are founding members of the United Nations.

Greek Government Structure

Greece began by having Monarchies and oligarchies, then tyanaries, and the democracy's.

In the late Bronze Age of 2000 and 1200BC all Greek city states seemed to have monarchies , ruled by kings.

Sparta had 2 kings usually ruled by brothers or cousins, at the same time. One would stay at home, and the other would be off fighting at wars.

Most of the people in Athens did not vote.

In 510 BC city states of Athens created created their first democratic government.